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Hypertext and the world wide web

The most remarkable species of book to punctuate the equilibrium of the twentieth century was the entirelynew literary form of hypertext. [Kilgour, p. 155]

The modern concept of hypertext seems to have originated with the 1945 Atlantic Monthly article by Vannevar Bush, who used his ideas of how the mind works “by associations” topropose the memex , a forerunner to linked hypertext.

In the early 1960s, after reading Bush’s article, Douglas Engelbart started the Augmentation Research Center(ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute. The ARC used a precursor of hypertext in what it called the On-Line System . Engelbart talked about asynchronous collaboration among teams distributedgeographically, about the use of computers to augment human intellect, and about the idea of “bootstrapping” as an iterativeand coadaptive learning processes or a feedback system. All of these ideas show up in Connexions , to be described later.

The actual term, “hypertext,” was coined around 1965 by Ted Nelson, who developed the idea in a complexsystem he called Xanadu.

By “hypertext,” I mean non-sequential writing–text that branches and allows choices to the reader, bestread at an interactive screen. As popularly conceived, this is a series of text chunks connected by links which offer the readerdifferent pathways. [Nelson 1965]

A form of hypertext has come into common use on the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW) with the hypertext markuplanguage (HTML), the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), and the browser, Mosaic , which evolved into the familiar Firefox, Netscape, Internet Explorer , and other browsers. HTML enables the linking of a point in a text to another point in that text or another text.This linking is created by the author to allow a new control by the reader.

This system, which breaks up the usual linear or sequential structure of the traditional book so that readers caneasily branch to related topics, may be more compatible with the way people think and learn (that is what Bush and Engelbart had inmind). The traditional book tries to bring this ability with the use of page references, footnotes, endnotes, sidebars, and otherprint techniques. The table of contents and index are attempts to create a more flexible structure. In a way, these structures areprecursors to hypertext and the digital search engines.

Ted Nelson talks about the free-flowing live documents on the network being subject to constant new use andlinkage, and those new links continually becoming interactively available. Any detached copy someone keeps is frozen and dead,lacking access to the new linkage. This is an interesting response to Plato’s concern about the harmful effect of literacy andwriting. If literacy and writing “killed” the text, then perhaps hypertext brings it back to life in an even more flexible form.Indeed, it may create a format that we cannot imagine now.

Hypertext would not have achieved its broad impact without the development of the modern Internet, WWW, and thehigh-density storage of hard disks and CD-ROMs. Again we have an interesting case of unintended consequences, with the seminalARPAnet evolving from a research and defense tool into the popular business, educational, communication, and personal informationlifeline it has become today.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A brave new digi-world and caribbean literacy : a search for solutions. OpenStax CNX. Apr 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10600/1.10
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