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A supportive commercial enterprise accompanied the development of literacy. At first, manuscripts were writtenfrom the orally composed stories. Perhaps Homer’s epic writings came into being this way. Later, manuscripts were composed directlyin writing, never having been uttered. An industry developed that would copy these “originals” under commission, as a tailor sewssuits. After a literate public developed, the scribes would make several copies of a manuscript and then offer them for sale much asa clothing store operates now. Along with this commercial side, a legal device came into being. If money could be made, the questionof ownership arose and the concept of the “right to copy” or the “copyright” was invented.

If we step back and look at this comparison of the oral and written cultures, we see still another interesting andpertinent dimension that has to do with physiology. If I tell you a story, then I transfer a piece of information from my brain intoyours. On the other hand, if I write that story down on paper and you read it, then I have also transferred the piece of informationfrom my brain into yours, but it has gone through a quite different part of the brain and nervous system. In the first case, a vocaland auditory process occurred. A blind person could participate. In the second case, an image and visual process occurred, and a deafperson could participate. In the first case, a person could address a crowd and a certain efficiency could be achieved, but in thesecond case, a much larger audience could be reached and spread over time as well as space.

Technology has continued to expand both the means of communication, with the telephone, radio, and taperecorder extending the vocal/auditory process and the telegraph, fax, television, and email extending the visual process. Is thiswhat the Sumerians and Greeks, the inventors of writing and the alphabet, had in mind? Surely not, but some unintended consequencesproduce phenomenally positive ends.

In this section, we have tried to indicate the incredible effects that literacy has had on human culture. Thepoint is that some of the predicted negative effects did occur and many of the positive effects that occurred were not predicted. Thiswas true because the negative effects were mainly the destruction of something that was known. The positive effects, however,involved the creation of things that were completely unknown in the preliterate culture. Some of those positive effects were initiallyseen as negative. These factors need to be very carefully considered as we try to predict the future of the next phase ofinformation systems. Indeed, the negative “unintended consequence” is the effect that we wish to understand and minimize.

Reading and writing seem to fit the definition of technology quite well and can be studied as such. For greater depth and more detail on literacy and writing, one should read theworks of Parry, Ong, Havelock, and Goody. For an example of how writing and literacy are viewed as technology, see Goody’s Chapter8: “Technologies of the Intellect: Writing and the Written Word.”

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
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da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A brave new digi-world and caribbean literacy : a search for solutions. OpenStax CNX. Apr 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10600/1.10
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