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Many of the stories in the oral culture were structured in the style of poetry with rhyme, rhythm, and form toaid the memory. The telling of these stories was a performance by a highly skilled person with many tricks to help him/her remember andthe ability to improvise and create on the fly. If a person in a story fell from favor, then they might disappear from the nexttelling. The story was “alive,” continuously adapting and changing.

After writing came into general use, the culture of communication changed. Poetry evolved into a morecompact and efficient prose, as memory aids were no longer needed. Similarly, the need to improvise vanished, and a larger group ofpeople was able to tell (read) stories, with more “accuracy” but at a cost. The stories become frozen, perhaps even “dead.” They becameseparated from the teller and the listener, with an independent existence in written form.

But there’s a larger point here. Writing would also significantly add to the power [emphasis added] of the word,and in so doing it would change the nature of what could be thought. [Stephens, p. 17]

The earliest writing used symbols that directly depicted the object or idea being described. In the west,this “short hand” evolved into phonetic symbols representing sounds in speech rather than the objects themselves. This early writingwas only loosely tied to language, but the arrangement changed to a tight connection when the phonetic alphabet evolved and people wereable to read aloud.

The pictorial writing systems required an enormous number of symbols, but the change to a phonetic systemreduced the number, similar to today’s western alphabets. The number of phonetic symbols, in fact, was initially too small sincethe alphabet had no vowels, only consonants. Words and sentences were not separated, and there were no paragraphs or chapters. Likeshorthand, the written language was a prompt, enabling the reader to “know” what had been written (probably because he already knewit). Indeed, a fully phonetic alphabet, the separation of words, and the development of punctuation, all of which enabled silentreading (which occurred around the 1500s), were major advances in the technology of writing and the book. This was the second phasein the development of writing, where unanticipated developments were changing everything.

As the change toward literacy has occurred, it has produced changes in the configuration of human society. . . .An act of vision was offered in place of an act of hearing as the means of communication, and as the means of storing communication.The adjustment that it caused was in part social, but the major effect was felt in the mind and the way the mind thinks as itspeaks. (Emphasis added) [Havelock, p. 100]

In addition to much-improved efficiency, the development of writing techniques brought along other ideas andchanges.

The printed text is supposed to represent the works of an author in definitive or ‘final’ form. For print iscomfortable only with finality. … Print culture of itself has a different mindset. It tends to feel a work as “closed,” set offfrom other works, a unit in itself. Print culture gave birth to the romantic notions of “originality” and “creativity,” which set apartan individual work from other works even more, seeing its origins and meaning as independent of outside influence, at least ideally. [Ong, pp. 132-133]

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, A brave new digi-world and caribbean literacy : a search for solutions. OpenStax CNX. Apr 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10600/1.10
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