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Educational management is a field of study and practice concerned with the operation of educational organizations. The present author has argued consistently (Bush, 1986; Bush, 1995; Bush, 1999; Bush, 2003) that educational management has to be centrally concerned with the purpose or aims of education. These purposes or goals provide the crucial sense of direction to underpin the management of educational institutions. Unless this link between purpose and management is clear and close, there is a danger of “managerialism . . . a stress on procedures at the expense of educational purpose and values” (Bush, 1999, p. 240). “Management possesses no super-ordinate goals or values of its own. The pursuit of efficiency may be the mission statement ofmanagement – but this is efficiency in the achievement of objectives which others define” (Newman&amp; Clarke, 1994, p. 29).
This module has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and sanctioned by the National Council of the Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a scholarly contribution to the knowledge base in educational administration.

The process of deciding on the aims of the organization is at the heart of educational management. In somesettings, aims are decided by the principal, often working in association with senior colleagues and perhaps a small group of laystakeholders. In many schools, however, goal setting is a corporate activity undertaken by formal bodies or informal groups.

School aims are strongly influenced by pressures from the external environment. Many countries have anational curriculum and these often leave little scope for schools to decide their own educational aims. Institutions may be left withthe residual task of interpreting external imperatives rather than determining aims on the basis of their own assessment of studentneed. The key issue here is the extent to which school managers are able to modify government policy and develop alternative approachesbased on school-level values and vision. Do they have to follow the script, or can they ad lib?

Distinguishing educational leadership and management

The concept of management overlaps with two similar terms, leadership and administration.“Management”is widely used in Britain, Europe, and Africa, for example, while“administration”is preferred in the United States, Canada, and Australia.“Leadership”is of great contemporary interest in most countries in the developed World. Dimmock (1999) differentiatesthese concepts whilst also acknowledging that there are competing definitions:

School leaders [experience] tensions betweencompeting elements of leadership, management and administration. Irrespective of how these terms are defined, school leadersexperience difficulty in deciding the balance between higher order tasks designed to improve staff, student and school performance(leadership), routine maintenance of present operations (management) and lower order duties (administration). (p.442)

Administration is not associated with“lower order duties”in the U.S. but may be seen as the overarching term, which embraces both leadership and management. Cuban (1988)provides one of the clearest distinctions between leadership and management.

Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
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Dominic
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_3_2_1
felecia
⅗ ⅔½
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The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
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Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
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combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
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x*x=2
felecia
2+2x=
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×/×+9+6/1
Debbie
Q2 x+(x+2)+(x+4)=60 3x+6=60 3x+6-6=60-6 3x=54 3x/3=54/3 x=18 :. The numbers are 18,20 and 22
Naagmenkoma
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
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Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
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16
Makan
x=16
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use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
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x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
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Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
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(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
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x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
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Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
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x+2y-z=7
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what is the coefficient of -4×
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-1
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A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
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Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
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What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
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why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational administration: the roles of leadership and management. OpenStax CNX. Jul 25, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10441/1.1
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