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Material is arranged in one sense chronologically and in another sense geographically so that the reader may review historical situations either in a "satellite" cross-sectional view of the entire world in one time-frame, or may follow events in any one geographical area through the many centuries in more or less brief narrative form by following the simple (Continued on page so and so) after each section. An attempt has been made to give a brief resume of the political status, important philosophies, scientific developments and religious trends while devoting proportionately more time to a description of the status of the common people of an area at any given moment. Hopefully most of the world's outstanding personalities in all fields have been given some space, but it is admitted that many aspects of art, literature, music and architecture may, in some opinions, be slighted, as these are not the major fields of the author's interests.

The textual data is presented in multiple chapters, each representing a definite period of time. The earlier chapters span several millennia each, but beginning with the 7th century B.C. each chapter contains the events of one century only. Within each chapter or time-frame in addition to some general remarks pertinent to the period as a whole, the world situation will discussed under eight main headings or sections, representing eight great areas of the globe. These areas and their subdivisions have been somewhat arbitrarily chosen, but seem to lend themselves satisfactorily to an orderly consideration of the various societies and civilizations. One cannot prevent certain over-lappings and certain difficulties with such a plan due to the changing political boundary lines from century to century. As one example it will be remembered that the Great Wall of China ended at Jiayuguan in the west, marking the border of traditional China, and beyond this on westward lies Central Asia. Yet today much of this land to the west belongs to the present Chinese Peoples Republic, even though the inhabitants are still chiefly Turkish and Mongolian peoples. So, in spite of the political shift certain areas currently under the domain of China, such as Sinkiang-Uighur (present spelling Xinjiang Uygur) and Tibet, will be considered in this manuscript under the heading of CENTRAL AND NORTHERN ASIA. Manchuria is considered an entity in itself, as part of the Far East complex.

Another matter which may annoy or confuse the reader as he progresses through the text is the spelling variations. One must realize that language is a spoken phenomenon and that what we call "written language" is really only a notation system that attempts to recall the spoken words to the observer. Thus when anyone attempts to write down a notation that seems to him to record a spoken foreign word his rendition will depend on his own language background and phonetics. The result may be only a rough approximation at best, and the spelling will vary greatly with the nationality of the translator. One of the most fascinating examples of this would be in the spelling variations for the great Mongol leader whose name has been variously written as "Jenghis Khan", "Chingis Khan", "Genghis Khan", "Chinggis Khan" and perhaps others. The Mongols as a group have been named "Khalkas", "Tatars", "Tartars", "Cumans", "Kipchaks", or "Poloritse" depending on the writer, his nationality and the location of the particular Mongol tribe at the moment. It is well known that the English of ten use a "k" where Americans use "c" as in such words as "Keltic"-"Celtic" and "Khosru-"Chosroes", etc. Although this author has attempted to be as consistent as possible there are probably many exceptions for which apology is asked.

There is still another source of confusion concerning names. When the first names of the monarchs of medieval and later Europe are all Anglicized we get an amazing succession of Charles, Henrys, Johns, Williams, etc. In one world history index I counted about sixty-five rulers named Charles. In this manuscript in so far as possible the monarchs’ names will be given in their own language so that differentiation may be aided. Thus in the Scandinavian and Germanic countries Charles will be Karl and William will be Wilhelm. Similarly the French Henrys will be Henris and the Portugese John will be the native Joao while Peter will be rendered as Pedro. Other examples will be apparent.

But that is not all! The Chinese emperors present special problems in nomenclature, as all Chinese have traditionally had several kinds of personal names, and special names were of ten added according to interests or achievements. Posthumous names were often given prominent individuals also to further complicate the situation. The old rulers of China were seldom ref erred to by their personal names but rather by the epithets of ancestral temple ceremonies, including the terms "tsu" (grandfather), "tsung" (clansman or ancestor) or "ti" (emperor). Founders of dynasties are commonly designated "Kao-tsu" (exalted grandfather) or "T'ai-tsu" (grand progenitor). In addition the emperors of the Ming and Ch'ing dynasties commonly coined era names indicating what they hoped the future would bring and subsequently they might be called by their era-name. One trouble is that some changed era-names several times during their reigns. Hucker gives the example: "Ming T'ai-tsu began his reign in traditional fashion with the era-name Hung-wu (swelling military power) -- 'the Hung-wu' emperor is a technically correct alternative way of referring to Ming T'ai-tsu."

Hucker (Ref. 101 ), page 288n
But one does not correctly say that his name was Hung-wu"!

One last warning. As this edition is being written almost all the Chinese cities and places are being spelled anew, in an attempt to come closer to the true phonetic rendition of the Chinese words. Since at the moment this only seems to add to the confusion and since it will be some years before most maps and texts will change to the new format, the old system of spelling will be followed in this manuscript. Peking will still be "Peking" and not "Beijing".

This text will occasionally also have special sections on selected subjects or appropriate summaries of certain eras. Terminology with reference to dates will be the traditional "B.C." referring to either years or centuries before the birth of Christ, and "A.D." for a specific year after Christ. The latter abbreviation, of course, is for Anno Domini , meaning "in the year of our Lord" and is therefore not properly used to refer to a century .

Thus, for those centuries after the birth of Christ we shall use the designation "C.E.", indicating the "Christian Era". Footnotes will be indicated by number on each page, as demonstrated on this one. References to the bibliography will be by number in the form (Ref. 34 , 102 ) and usually will be grouped at the end of paragraphs or sections to minimize confusion during the reading of the text. Some "additional notes" will be found at the end of the text, beginning on page 1181. Triple asterisks - *** - in the text proper indicate that these additional notes are appropriate to that paragraph. In some instances the page number is listed with the asterisks, but otherwise the notes are easily found under the proper time-frame and then the geographical division, just as in the main outline.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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