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  • the research questions
  • the interview guide
  • themes, concepts and categories used in prior studies
  • prior knowledge of the researcher
  • the data itself

The mechanics for organising the data were based on the descriptive analysis technique as outlined by Terre Blanche, et al, (2006; 252)

  • reading through the interview transcripts and jotting down notes and comments
  • selecting the richest and thickest portions of the interview transcripts
  • listing the emerging themes and clustering and encoding them
  • identifying the major themes and sub-themes
  • analysing categories of the themes and sub-themes and (making sense) of what they mean

The data analysis was managed thematically. The categories and themes were the categories and themes used in the interview guide and supplemented by the literature review.

Validity of the research findings

The production of a convincing narrative report of the research has most often served as de facto validation, even if the only thing it validates is the researchers writing skills rather than his or her observational capacities [Kuklick in Denzin and Lincoln (2008; 163)]. McMillan and Schumacher (2001; 478) concur when they state that selecting trustworthy data also involves an awareness of the researchers assumptions, predispositions and influence on the social situation.

Qualitative researchers generally validate their data by means of triangulation. Denzin in McMillan and Schumacher (2001; 478) explain triangulation as the cross-validation among data sources, data collection strategies, time periods and theoretical schemes. To find regularities in the data the researcher compares different sources, situations and methods to see whether the same pattern keeps recurring – a theme could be cross checked by comparing data found in artefact collection (minutes, memos and so on), informant interviews (principals, teachers, and so on) and field observations, as illustrated in figure 7. Flick in Denzin and Lincoln (2008; 7) state that qualitative research is inherently multi-method in focus, – the use of multiple methods or triangulation reflects an attempt to add rigour, breadth, complexity, richness and depth to any inquiry. Triangulation is not a tool or strategy for validation but and alternative to validation.

Figure 7: Triangulation for Logical Pattern

Artefact Informants


Social Scene





Source: McMillan and Schumacher (2001; 478)

The critics of qualitative research generally claim that qualitative research is too subjective, the number of cases sampled is too small, or that the analysis and interpretation is not scientific – to mention but a few criticisms. The questions that qualitative researchers need to ask themselves is: to what extent can the data analysis be trusted; how much confidence can the researcher place in his / her analysis; is the data analysis presented to the readers in such a way that they can verify and validate the findings for themselves. Lincoln and Guba (1985; 290) suggest that qualitative research should be assessed in terms of credibility, transferability, dependability and conformity of the data.

  • credibility relates to how the researcher reconstructs the participants views into the process of the inquiry. One method is, according to Lincoln and Guba, prolonged engagement, that is the investment of sufficient time to achieve certain purposes, learning the culture (of the respondents), testing for misinformation introduced by distortions either by the self or by the respondents and building trust (with the respondents).
  • transferability refers to the degree to which the findings can be applied to other contexts. Terre Blanche, et al, (2006; 381) state that to create a foundation for transferability and to allow other researchers to use the findings in making comparisons with their own work it should contain an accurate description of the research process, an explanation of the arguments for the different choices of methods and a detailed description of the research situation and context.
  • dependability for the qualitative researcher is equivalent to reliability in quantitative research that is it should produce the same results in a similar context. In qualitative research this replicability is impossibility because of the flexibility of the research design. Guba and Lincoln (1989; 242) state that far from being a threat to dependability such changes and shifts are a hallmark of a maturing and successful inquiry – but such changes and shifts need to be both tracked and trackable.
  • conformity is concerned with establishing that the data and the findings and interpretations are linked. Lincoln and Guba (1885; 326) refer to an audit whereby a third party reviews the audit trail maintained by the researcher including recordings, transcripts, interview guides, lists of interviewees, field and observational notes, and so on.


The chapter commenced with the rationale for the constructivist approach to the research study and the motivation for the use of interviews, in particular the semi-structured interview approach. The purposeful sampling of the research sites was elaborated upon with emphasis on the information-richness and ethical considerations. The data collection and data analysis methods were then discussed with an overview of the validity of the research findings. The following chapter focuses on the research findings.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Financial management of schools. OpenStax CNX. Nov 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11137/1.1
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