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  • informed consent – the procedure in which individuals choose whether (or not) to participate in an investigation after being informed of the facts that would be likely to influence their decisions. Deiner and Crandall in Cohen, et al (2007; 51) state that the research participant has the right to refuse to take part or to withdraw once the research has begun.
  • right to privacy – the greater the sensitivity of the information, the more safeguards is required to protect the privacy of the research participant.
  • anonymity – the information provided by the participant should in no way reveal their identity.

Neuman (2006; 00) continues by stating that the researcher should refrain from releasing confidential details of the study with the published results and making interpretations of the results inconsistent with the data. As confidentiality is a prerequisite for credible research, anonymity of the research sites and their principals was guaranteed – during the data collection, analysis and interpretation (findings) no reference was made to the sites or their participants. The sites and participants were referred to as follows: School 1 (Principal 1; Educator 1; Parent 1); School 2 (Principal 2; Educator 2; Parent 2); School 3 (Principal 3; Educator 3; Parent 3); and so on. Additionally participants were allowed to examine the transcripts and make amendments (if necessary).

Research bias

I am a Superintendent of Education in the Pinetown Education District and work in arguably the most progressive, proactive and highest performing circuit in the district, if not in the province – our secondary schools have consistently produced the best academic results in the district and the work ethic of our school principals is second to none.

Managers in the circuit have developed a school monitoring checklist, which has been adopted as the provincial school monitoring checklist. It contains, inter alia, benchmarks for good financial management practices in public schools – all public schools in the circuit have met the minimum expectations in respect of good financial management practices – for this reason the circuit was excluded from the selected research sites.

Pilot study

The purpose of a pilot test is to help to determine that the individuals in the sample are capable of understanding the questions posed in the interview [Cresswell (2008; 402)]. The pilot test allows the researcher to make changes to the research instrument based on feedback from the individuals who evaluate the instrument – it is a mechanism which allows the researcher to refine his or her ideas and to find out whether the questions are workable.

According to Rosnow and Rosenthal (1996; 111-112) the purposes of pilot testing are:

  • to prevent the production of flawed data
  • to check each question for relevance
  • to establish the best sequence of questioning
  • to establish the best wording of questions

Many of the proponents of pilot testing agree that the questionnaire or interview schedule should be reviewed by more than one “outsider” who must be absolutely candid (brutally honest) with their responses and comments in respect of the strengths and weaknesses of the questions in the interview schedule.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Financial management of schools. OpenStax CNX. Nov 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11137/1.1
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