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Chapter three

Research design and methodology

Introduction

Chapter two focussed on the literature review in respect of the management of public schools’ finances, in particular the role of the public school principals and their school governing bodies in post apartheid South Africa. In order to substantiate the revelations of the literature review a qualitative approach to data collection, analysis and interpretation was chosen – the data collection method would be the focus group interview method using the semi-structured interview approach.

In order to conduct the focus group interviews with school principals, educator representatives on the school governing body and parent representatives on the school governing body written permission was requested from the director of the Pinetown Education District [Annexure A]. Permission was granted subject to the following conditions [Annexure D]:

  • No school or person may be forced to participate in the study
  • Access to the school/s is to be negotiated with the principal/s
  • The normal learning and teaching programme of the school must not be disrupted
  • The confidentiality of the participants is to be respected

Research design

Research design is governed by the notion “fitness for purpose” [Cohen, et al (2007; 73)]. The purpose of the research (will) determine the methodology and the design of the research. Denzin and Lincoln (2008; 28) state that three interconnected generic activities define the qualitative research process – the researcher approaches the world with a set of ideas, a framework (theory, ontology), that specifies a set of questions (epistemology) that he or she then examines in specific ways (methodology, analysis). In order to determine the understanding of principals, parents and educators with regards to the accountability and responsibility for the schools finances a qualitative research design was used. Patton (1989; 57) states that qualitative data can produce a wealth of knowledge from a restricted number of people. The experiences, opinions, feelings and knowledge of people can be captured by direct questions and quotations and are not limited or distorted by predetermined and standardised categories. The researcher is allowed flexibility to explore unanticipated topics of importance as they are discovered. According to McMillan and Schumacher (2001; 395) qualitative research is an inquiry in which researchers collect data in face-to-face situations by interacting with selected persons in their settings. Qualitative research methods allow the researcher to understand the meanings that people give social phenomena by entering into the natural world of the people whom they study.

According to Klein and Myers in Mackenzie and Knipe (2006; 123) it is assured that our knowledge of reality is gained only through social construction … it attempts to understand phenomenon through the meanings that people give to them. Cresswell (2003; 10) concurs that a compelling reason for a researcher to choose the qualitative approach as a means of data analysis is to study the individuals in their natural settings. Patton (2002; 70) describes the strength of qualitative research as facilitating a study of multifarious concerns … without being constrained (and hampered) by predetermined categories of analysis. The qualitative approach produces a wealth of comprehensive information about a small number of cases, by increasing the extent of understanding the cases and situations studied and by reducing generalisations often negatively associated with quantitative research. Analytic induction is thus a major logic of qualitative research. The choice of cases to be examined will have an important bearing on the validity of the analytic induction and has a direct relationship on the sampling procedure. One method of data collection that the qualitative researcher may employ is the interview – in fact the interview is probably the most common method used in qualitative research.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Financial management of schools. OpenStax CNX. Nov 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11137/1.1
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