# 0.2 Pervasive polymers

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Pervasive Polymers

## Objectives

In this laboratory you will become familiar with the classifications of polymers by synthesizing and examining several of the following:

• a polyamide (nylon)
• a cross-linked condensation copolymer (Glyptal ${}^{\text{TM}}$ resin)
• a loosely cross-linked silicon-based condensation polymer (a polymethylsiloxane)

• Pre-lab (10%)
• Correctness and thoroughness of your observations and the answers to the questions on the report form (80%)
• TA evaluation of lab procedure (10%)

Before Coming to Lab . . .

• Complete the pre-lab exercise
• Read the introduction and any related materials provided to you

NOTE: If you wear contact lenses, for this week’s lab, you may prefer to wear your prescription glasses.

Introduction

Approximately 50% of the industrial chemists in the United States work in some area of polymer chemistry, a fact that illustrates just how important polymers are to our economy and standard of living. These polymers are essential to the production of goods ranging from toys to roofing materials. So just what exactly are polymers? Polymers are substances composed of extremely large molecules, termed macromolecules, with molecular masses ranging from ${\text{10}}^{4}$ to ${\text{10}}^{8}$ amu. Macromolecules consist of many smaller molecular units, monomers, joined together through covalent bonds. The molar mass of the polymer is quoted as an average molar mass.

Both natural and synthetic polymers are ubiquitous in our lives: elastomers (polymers with elastic, rubber-like properties), plastics (the first plastic was used in 1843 to make buttons), textile fibers, resins, and adhesives. The more common polymers include acrylics, alkyds, cellulosics, epoxy resins, phenolics, polycarbonates, polyamides, polyesters, polyfluorocarbons, polyolefins, polystyrenes, silicones, and vinyl plastics, to name but a few.

Naturally occurring macromolecules are derived from living things: wood, wool, paper, cotton, starch, silk, rubber and have provided us for centuries with materials for clothing, food, and housing. Starch, glycogen, and cellulose are all polymeric versions of the monomer glucose. Again, we see that minor structural variations create chemicals with very different properties. Proteins are macromolecules composed of monomeric units of alpha amino acids; nucleic acids are composed of subunits (nucleotides) containing a nitrogeneous base, sugar and phosphate groups. Natural rubber is a latex exudate of certain trees and composed of monomers called isoprene units. The usefulness of latex was first discovered by Lord Mackintosh in Malaysia in the 19th century and provided the foundation of his waterproof rainwear empire.

When scientists linked the special properties of these substances (physical properties such as tensile strength and flexibility) to the sizes of their molecules, the next logical step involved chemical modifications of naturally occurring polymers.

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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