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Since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2002, much attention has focused on urban schools, where a great number of students are living in poverty and where the highest number of failing schools exists. In spite of a decade of efforts, a significant achievement gap between urban students and other students remains. In addition, urban districts are often more likely to face less resources, more leadership turnover, and difficulty in attracting and keeping highly qualified teachers than non-urban school districts. In spite of such obstacles, examples of urban schools having consistently high levels of student achievement continue to occur. Research suggests the leadership abilities of the principal can have a significant impact on the success of such schools in improving student achievement. This study examined the leadership abilities of principals in three high achieving, high poverty schools located within the same urban school district, as perceived by the principals themselves and their staffs. Using the conceptual framework of Kouzes and Posner (2001, 2003, 2007), this mixed-method study used surveys and interviews/focus groups to examine the leadership abilities of the principals. Results indicated that both the principals and their teachers perceived the visionary leadership of the principal as having the most impact on the culture of successful teaching and learning in these schools. The implication for educational leadership is the need to develop professional development programs for aspiring and practicing urban school principals that focus explicitly on how school leaders can, develop and implement a shared vision of learning that leads to excellence in teaching and student achievement.

Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011)

NCPEA Education Leadership Review is a nationally refereed journal published two times a year, in Winter (April), and Fall (October) by the National Council of Professors ofEducational Administration. Editor: Kenneth Lane, Southeastern Louisiana University; Assistant Editor: Gerard Babo, Seton Hall University; Founding Editor: Theodore Creighton, Virginia Tech.

This manuscript has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and endorsed by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a significant contribution to the scholarship and practice of education administration. In addition to publication in the Connexions Content Commons, this module is published in the Education Leadership Review, Volume 12, Number 2 (October, 2011), ISSN 1532-0723. In addition, this mansucript is catalogued in the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) database, providing educators, researchers, and the general public with access to education literature and resources. (NCPEA/U.S. Department of Education Contract No. ED-04-CO-0005)


Peter R. Litchka, Loyola University Maryland


In 2002, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was passed, ushering in an unprecedented era of accountability for public schools across America. The goal of NCLB was to have 100 percent of America’s schoolchildren at or above proficiency in reading, mathematics and science by 2014, as measured by a series of formal assessments created by each of the states.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11360/1.3
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