# 0.2 Introduction to algorithms  (Page 5/8)

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Data Model Theory

A data model theory has three main components:

• The structural part: a collection of data structures which are used to create databases representing the entities or objects modeled by the database.
• The integrity part: a collection of rules governing the constraints placed on these data structures to ensure structural integrity.
• The manipulation part: a collection of operators which can be applied to the data structures, to update and query the data contained in the database.

For example, in the relational model , the structural part is based on a modified concept of the mathematical relation ; the integrity part is expressed in first-order logic and the manipulation part is expressed using the relational algebra , tuple calculus and domain calculus .

Data Model Instance

Data modeling is the process of creating a data model instance by applying a data model theory. This is typically done to solve some business enterprise requirement.

Business requirements are normally captured by a semantic logical data model . This is transformed into a physical data model instance from which is generated a physical database . For more information on the tools and techniques of data modeling, see data modeling .

For example, a data modeler may use a data modeling tool to create an ERD of the Corporate data repository of some business enterprise. This model is transformed into a relational model , which in turn generates a relational database .

Pic.1 Zachman Framework Perspectives of Data Focus

A data model instance may be one of three kinds (according to ANSI in 1975):

• a conceptual schema (data model) describes the semantics of an organization. This consists of entity classes (representing things of significance to the organization) and relationships (assertions about associations between pairs of entity classes).
• a logical schema (data model) describes the semantics, as represented by a particular data manipulation technology. This consists of descriptions of tables and columns, object oriented classes, and XML tags, among other things.
• a physical schema (data model) describes the physical means by which data are stored. This is concerned with partitions, CPUs, tablespaces, and the like.

The significance of this approach, according to ANSI, is that it allows the three perspectives to be relatively independent of each other. Storage technology can change without affecting either the logical or the conceptual model. The table/column structure can change without (necessarily) affecting the conceptual model. In each case, of course, the structures must remain consistent with the other model. The table/column structure may be different from a direct translation of the entity classes and attributes, but it must ultimately carry out the objectives of the conceptual entity class structure. Early phases of many software development projects emphasize the design of a conceptual data model . Such a design can be detailed into a logical data model . In later stages, this model may be translated into physical data model .

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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