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"Where the star came from is not so clear. A star within a crescent was a badge of Richard I more than two hundred and fifty years before Constantinoplefell, which implies that the crescent was adopted by the Saracens if, as we are told, the device was emblematic of the crusades and the star stood for the star of Bethlehem. In his badgeRichard placed the crescent on its back and the star above it; but when Mohammedanism became triumphant the Turks took the star and placed it with the upright crescent where the dark areaof the moon should be, from which on some flags it has emerged. Others tell us it is the star of piercing brightness, themorning star, Al Târek, the star which appeareth by the night of the eighty-sixth chapter of the Korân..."
More embellishment on the story we read in Hulme. But what of the history of our flag? Let's try the third book.

“flags through the ages and across the world” written by whitney smith in 1975

Smith's book promises to provide useful historical perspective. By 1975 the world had witnessed national conflict of all kinds,including a second world war and countless localized skirmishes dividing existing nations and producing new ones. A brief Author search in the catalogtells us that Smith has written many books, every one about flags.

Let's take a look at the table of contents for our options.

National Flag Histories
Just what we are looking for, National Flags and their Histories. But Smith's book has much more to offer than that, as we shall see. Looking in theindex we find an interesting option: Star(s) and moon, symbolism of, 316-317.If we skip to p. 316, we find a collection of such flags,
Star&crescent flags
as well as a numbered index for their origins.
Index of flags
However, when we scan the page for our flag we find an unpleasant piece of evidence...
Missing page!
It is not often that the one page in a book that you need is the one that has been torn out.But such frustrations serve as a reminder of the care required of us when we are permitted to use such resources. With a stiff lip and theresolve of the determined historian, we move on.

As we continue to browse this book we find our symbol in this fascinating chart.

Chart of flags, grouped by categories such as "Flora," "Fauna," and "Abstract Form"
It seems that Smith has categorized the flags in the work by symbol and form as well, the footprint of a specialist indeed.

A scan of the index brings us to the pages on Egypt, the nation of origin for our flag.

Egypt in index to Smith's "Flags"
We have a number of options; let's go right to the history page.
History of Egyptian flag
The first thing we see is our flag along side many other similar flags, an indication of its evolution over the years.
Mehmet Ali
A closer look reveals the handwritten words "Mehmet Ali." The adjoined paragraph explains:
The Ottoman flag in the nineteenth century normally bore a white star and crescent on its red field, although both Turkish and Egyptian ships very frequently displayed the old,plain red ensign. Muhammad Ali did introduce one distinctive new flag which eventually became the first real Egyptian national flag. Perhaps to symbolize the victory of his armies in threecontinents (Europe, Asia, and Africa) or his own sovereignty over Egypt, Nubia, and the Sudan, Ali set three white crescents and three stars on a red field. Technically only the personalstandard of Muhammad Ali--and of those who followed him as hereditary rules of Egypt under the title of khedive--the flag was at least a mark of distinction between Egypt and Turkey.
But it is the next page that fully satisfies our immediate needs.
Egyptian Flags 1914-1923
This chart identifies the period and location of this flag's use. Based on this evidence, we can determine that our flag served as the flag of Egypt and Sudan from 1914-1923.We have gained a good amount of information and gathered a few valuable resources. Let's move on tothe next flag.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Understanding material culture: deciphering the imagery of the "souvenir of egypt". OpenStax CNX. Oct 08, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10301/1.7
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