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"Where the star came from is not so clear. A star within a crescent was a badge of Richard I more than two hundred and fifty years before Constantinoplefell, which implies that the crescent was adopted by the Saracens if, as we are told, the device was emblematic of the crusades and the star stood for the star of Bethlehem. In his badgeRichard placed the crescent on its back and the star above it; but when Mohammedanism became triumphant the Turks took the star and placed it with the upright crescent where the dark areaof the moon should be, from which on some flags it has emerged. Others tell us it is the star of piercing brightness, themorning star, Al Târek, the star which appeareth by the night of the eighty-sixth chapter of the Korân..."
More embellishment on the story we read in Hulme. But what of the history of our flag? Let's try the third book.

“flags through the ages and across the world” written by whitney smith in 1975

Smith's book promises to provide useful historical perspective. By 1975 the world had witnessed national conflict of all kinds,including a second world war and countless localized skirmishes dividing existing nations and producing new ones. A brief Author search in the catalogtells us that Smith has written many books, every one about flags.

Let's take a look at the table of contents for our options.

National Flag Histories
Just what we are looking for, National Flags and their Histories. But Smith's book has much more to offer than that, as we shall see. Looking in theindex we find an interesting option: Star(s) and moon, symbolism of, 316-317.If we skip to p. 316, we find a collection of such flags,
Star&crescent flags
as well as a numbered index for their origins.
Index of flags
However, when we scan the page for our flag we find an unpleasant piece of evidence...
Missing page!
It is not often that the one page in a book that you need is the one that has been torn out.But such frustrations serve as a reminder of the care required of us when we are permitted to use such resources. With a stiff lip and theresolve of the determined historian, we move on.

As we continue to browse this book we find our symbol in this fascinating chart.

Chart of flags, grouped by categories such as "Flora," "Fauna," and "Abstract Form"
It seems that Smith has categorized the flags in the work by symbol and form as well, the footprint of a specialist indeed.

A scan of the index brings us to the pages on Egypt, the nation of origin for our flag.

Egypt in index to Smith's "Flags"
We have a number of options; let's go right to the history page.
History of Egyptian flag
The first thing we see is our flag along side many other similar flags, an indication of its evolution over the years.
Mehmet Ali
A closer look reveals the handwritten words "Mehmet Ali." The adjoined paragraph explains:
The Ottoman flag in the nineteenth century normally bore a white star and crescent on its red field, although both Turkish and Egyptian ships very frequently displayed the old,plain red ensign. Muhammad Ali did introduce one distinctive new flag which eventually became the first real Egyptian national flag. Perhaps to symbolize the victory of his armies in threecontinents (Europe, Asia, and Africa) or his own sovereignty over Egypt, Nubia, and the Sudan, Ali set three white crescents and three stars on a red field. Technically only the personalstandard of Muhammad Ali--and of those who followed him as hereditary rules of Egypt under the title of khedive--the flag was at least a mark of distinction between Egypt and Turkey.
But it is the next page that fully satisfies our immediate needs.
Egyptian Flags 1914-1923
This chart identifies the period and location of this flag's use. Based on this evidence, we can determine that our flag served as the flag of Egypt and Sudan from 1914-1923.We have gained a good amount of information and gathered a few valuable resources. Let's move on tothe next flag.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Understanding material culture: deciphering the imagery of the "souvenir of egypt". OpenStax CNX. Oct 08, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10301/1.7
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