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We check the appendix for our plate number (listed atop the images), 21

Plate 21
and find the region of origin, Turkey. If we then look to the index at theback of the book...
Turkey in index
we find Turkey's location in the text. Let's see what Hulme has to say about the flags:
"The crescent moon and star... were adopted by the Turks as their device on the capture of Constantinople by Mahomet II, in 1453. They were originally the symbol of Diana, the Patronessof Byzantium, and were adopted by the Ottomans as a badge of triumph. Prior to that event, the crescent was a very common charge in the armorial bearings of English Knights, but it fellinto considerable disuse when it became the special device of the Mohamedans, though even so late as the year 1464 we find Rene, Duke of Anjou, founding an Order of Knighthoodhaving as its badge the crescent moon, encircled by a motto signifying 'praise by increasing.'
This historical information may prove relevant, particularly the association of the star and crescent with Constantinoplesince 1453. Let's move on the next work.

"flags of the world, past and present : their story and associations" written by william john gordon in 1926

Published thirty years after Hulme's book, Gordon's work likely includes all that has changed after World War I. This is important for our research inparticular because of the marked impact that WWI had on the borders and national identities of the Arab World. Let's jump to the table of contents and see about ouroptions.
Table of contents
Flags of Africa and Asia seems to be the most promising section for our purposes, considering what we have learned so far about our flag.
Plate XXVIII, Flags of Africa and Asia.
Note that flags 11 and 12 closely resemble our flag. Let's see where the appendix lists these flags as originating from.
Labels for Plate XXVIII, Flags of Africa and Asia
We discover that flag 11 is Egypt's, while 12 is Turkey's. Let's see what Gordon has to say about Egypt, looking it up in theindex.

Gordon writes: "The crescent is more a symbol of Constantinople than of the Turks, and it dates from the days of Philip of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great. When, so thelegend runs, that enterprising monarch besieged Byzantium in 339 B.C he met with repulse after repulse and tried as a last resource to undermine the walls, but the crescent moon shone out sogloriously that the attempt was discovered and the city saved. And thereupon the Byzantines adopted the crescent as their badge, and Diana, whose emblem it was, as their patronness.When the Roman emperors came, the crescent was not displaced, and it continued to be the city badge under the Christian emperors. In 1453, when Mohammed the Second took Constantinople, itwas still to the fore, and being in want of something to vary the monotony of the plain red flag under which he had led his men to victory, he, with great discrimination, availedhimself of the old Byzantine badge, explaining that it meant Constantinople on a field of blood..."

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Understanding material culture: deciphering the imagery of the "souvenir of egypt". OpenStax CNX. Oct 08, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10301/1.7
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