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New england colonies

Unlike most of the Chesapeake or southern colonies which were established to make a profit, New England colonies tended to be established for religious reasons. Henry VIII broke from the Catholic Church in Rome, creating the Church of England with himself as the temporal and religious leader. The Anglicans religious ceremonies tended to resemble those of the Roman church. The major difference between the Anglican Church and the Catholic Church was that religious leaders in the former were allowed to get married. Now religion is a very important aspect of one's life. As you get older you tend to become more liberal or more conservative, but people tend not to sway from the religious views they were raised with. People do not just wake up one day and think about a major shift in their religious beliefs. But that was what Henry VIII asked the people of England to do when he broke from Rome. One group of English people believed that the Anglican Church did not go far enough in breaking with all Roman traditions, yet they also believed that the Church of England would not change. These people, called Separatists, wanted to create their own separate church -separate from the Church of England. Separatists moved to Holland, but their attempts to create a new religious community failed. So in 1620 they loaded up their belongings on ship called the Mayflower, and set sail for British America, led by William Bradford. They were also called Pilgrims. They named their new colony Plymouth after the English town from which many of them were originally from. Leaders of the Separatists created an agreement called Mayflower Compact. The Mayflower Compact was British colonial America's first political agreement: that called for the creation of a political body with the power “to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions, and Officers, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general Good of the Colony.” The Compact was drafted in order to provide a government. Another group of English subjects believed that the creation of the Church of England was a step in the right direction; they also believed that the Anglican Church needed to remove all vestiges of Catholicism. For example, the Anglican Church still said the Nicene Creed in which the parishioners affirmed their belief in "one holy, Catholic, and apostolic church." Those who wanted to purify the Church of England were called the Puritans. Now Puritans were English followers of a protestant minister named John Calvin. Calvin emphasized predestination, a lack of free will, and the belief that humans were depraved and needed a strong religious government to control their animal instincts. Puritans also believed in predestination, election by God who is saved (the nagging Puritan question was "Am I saved?"). They valued education. For example, Harvard was established in 1636 specifically to train Puritan ministers. Puritans supported intolerance - error must be opposed and driven out. Such as the persecution of Anne Hutchinson. Hutchinson was an ember of the original Puritan group that established Massachusetts Bay. Only men could become ministers (the only religion that allowed women to lead church services were the Quakers -see "Middle Colonies" below). And women were prohibited, by tradition, from public speaking. Hutchinson challenged both when she proclaimed that God wanted women to become ministers, then she began leading church services in her house.Hutchinson was arrested and tried. Her defense was that God told her to become a minister. The judge rejected her evidence and banished Hutchinson from the colony. Hutchinson headed to New York, with the intention of talking to and converting Indians. One day a group of Indians shot arrows into Hutchinson, killing her. Word of Hutchinson's demise reached her family and friends in Massachusetts Bay. "We were right," is what they felt. If God had wanted women to speak in public and become ministers, He would have saved her from the arrows of the Indians.Instead, Hutchinson's death was "proof" that God did not want women to speak in public or become ministers. Puritan were unable to change the Anglican Church thus they decided to migrate to the Americas. The first Puritan colony in British colonial America was called Massachusetts Bay colony. Massachusetts Bay was established in 1630 and was led by John Winthrop. Another Puritan dissenter was Roger Williams. Williams did not support the collection of taxes to support the established churches. Rather, Williams believed that churches should be supported by voluntary tithes. He also held the notion that Indians should be paid for their lands. These two ideas, which were out of step in Puritan Massachusetts, got Wiliams kicked out of the colony. So he left to establish a new colony - Rhode Island, with complete religious freedom for all Christians. Back to John Winthrop. Winthrop was both the religious and political leader of the Puritans.And he came to America aboard the English ship the Arbella.Before leaving the ship, Winthrop gave a speech to his shipmates. In a nutshell, the speech, entitled "A Modell of Christian Charity," is an explanation as to why they are there and what they will do there.Puritans were to create, Winthrop said, a perfect community. Politically, socially, economically, and religiously perfect. In fact, their colony would become the most perfect, greatest colony in the history of the world and people from around the world will try to emulate the Puritans, for ever. And if they fail, then God is ready to cast them into the pits of Hell. That's a lot of pressure to put on people. So too was Winthrop's idea of the covenant. Now John Calvin's idea of the covenant was between one person and God: one person promises to live according to God's laws and God promises not to kill the person prematurely and cast him into the pits of Hell. Winthrop's idea of the covenant linked the community at large with God's vengeance. Everyone in the Puritan community will live a Christian life and in exchange God will bless everyone with health and wealth. Now if just one person in the community breaks just one of God's laws, then God can kill everyone in the community and cast everyone into the pits of Hell. Again, this is putting a tremendous pressure on the colonists. In Massachusetts Bay, the church members controlled the civil government and church membership was limited to those who were predestined to go to Heaven. Wealth and health were two signs that a Puritan was predestined for Heaven. Why would God waste prosperity on someone who is going to Hell? So the church members were typically the wealthy members of the Puritan society, which meant the economic elites controlled the civil government. Church membership dropped in the late seventeenth century (coincided with bad economic times and failed harvests) so in 1662 the Puritan leaders created the Halfway Covenant: any adult person who had at least one parent as a church member could join the Puritan church without having to "prove" that they are predestined to enter Heaven.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Us history to 1877. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11483/1.1
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