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Students and their teachers create the assessment criteria and/or tools so that they are meaningful and generate knowledge.For more on this subject, as well as example, click here .

Seamless and Ongoing

Instruction and assessment are integrated; assessment of the process and products occurs throughout the instruction.To read more about this subject, click here .

Authentic Assessment

Authentic assessment is geared toward assessment methods that correspond as closely as possible to real world experience.The instructor observes the student in the process of working on something real; provides feedback; monitors the student's use of the feedback; andadjusts instruction and evaluation accordingly. Authentic assessment takes this principle of evaluating real work into all areas of thecurriculum.


Assessments are meaningful, challenging experiences that involve presenting students with an authentic task,project, or investigation, and then observing, interviewing and/or examining their artifacts and presentations to assess what they actuallyknow and can do. For an example using mathematics, click here .

Suggested Reading:

Performance Assessment : A strong overview of the field.

PDF version of Performance Assessment below:

Performance Assessment:


When we hear the name, "portfolio," we often think of artists carrying around a large valise of their creations, or of abusiness-person carrying around a thin briefcase of financial papers. The portfolio in education is a powerful assessment technique, as well, andincludes evidence from one's work on major topics, successes, challenges, and questions. The key word is evidence that can show - far more than tests - what students know and what they need to do in order to improve.

What can be in a Portfolio?

  • Examples of best work; the range of work (from satisfying to unsatisfying work); work that shows growth.
  • Samples from each theme or unit or response to a large question.
  • Work displaying progress and the value of the course in moving the student along.
  • Evidence of insight - samples that show concepts being developed.
  • Student self reflections - why the student made certain choices; how the student believes s/he is doing; what s/he wants to do in order toimprove.

Portfolios and good questions

A good question, serving as the central core of a course, is best combined with a portfolio from individual students - or ateam - to demonstrate progress.

Here are some examples of core questions:

  • How much trash is produced in a day in your community? Students would collect and carry all of the trash they produce in a 24-hour period, thenorganize the trash into categories, report the environmental problems that exist with each type of trash, and find solutions forthese problems. They must then devise an advertising plan to increasepublic awareness about waste disposal. Finally, they must determine if they were correct in their calculations or in the effectiveness oftheir campaign.
  • A tractor has stopped running. Why? How can it be restarted again and made useful? Is it worth it? If the tractor were abandoned in favor ofsomething else to do the work, what would that be? How would it be accomplished? And, how could you use the old tractor for otherpurposes? Where would it go if you're not using it?

Examples of portfolios

Below is a general outline for a portfolio's contents:

  • Table of Contents.
  • A letter from student to the teacher explaining the contents.
  • Student reflections on his/her performance.
  • Best work and reason why the student has selected it.
  • Work the student is unsatisfied with, and reasons why.
  • Most improved work or work that shows growth.
  • Plan and commitment for improvement.

Porfolios are creative efforts and show the individuality of student work. They can take many forms and should tap intothe cultural themes of the students themselves. Consider, too, how the forms below may fit into your subject:

  • Museum exhibit
  • Oral history
  • Documents
  • Diaries
  • Songs
  • Stories
  • Dances
  • Rituals
  • Film
  • Drawing
  • Interviews
  • Three-dimensional art work

Recommended Reading: Using Portfolios in the Classroom

PDF File below

Using Portfolios in the Classroom

This article talks about the ability to use the Internet and computers to create and edit student portfolios.

To see an example of a science-related student portfolio, click here .

To see examples of teacher portfolios, click here .


Usually, you just click "Next" to go to the next page. When you finish a section, however, (as you're about to do when you finishreading these two paragraphs), you need to click on the "Outline" button, which is on the bottom, right-hand side of the page. Look underneath the bluebar and click on the word "Outline."

When you click on "Outline," a screen will come up that will show you the outline for Course 3. Look for the next section to read andclick on the first topic in that next section. For example, when you get to the outline now, look under the next section called "A-REEF: Reflection" andlook for the first topic in black lettering called "A Teacher's Story." Click on "A Teacher's Story."

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Course 3: assessment practices. OpenStax CNX. Mar 13, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10337/1.11
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