<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Localism was believed by principals to significantly correlate with promoting spirit ( p of .008, p<.01) and the ability to raise achievement ( p of .014, p<.05). Community attitude was related to the ability to motivate teachers ( p of .001, p<.01), the ability to handle paperwork ( p of .023, p<.05), and the ability to cope with stress ( p of .003, p<.01). Both community attitude and historicism correlated with the ability to promote values, but were not the primary factors. The most significant regression model in percentage of influence found teacher attitude, community attitude, and historicism to predict 60.5% of the variance in the perceived ability to promote values ( p of .024 , p<.05).

The multiple regression analyses suggest that the principals’ perceptions of localism, historicism, and familism had some influence on their sense of self-efficacy; however, the correlations were weak and offered no significant support, in the opinion of the researchers, of a substantial relationship between the principals’ perceptions of the influence of Appalachian cultural features and their sense of self-efficacy (Table 5).

No relationships were found between any of the demographic questions and responses to the PSE or CIS .

Conclusions and recommendations

Based on the limited nature of this study and the data derived from it, the researchers cannot provide definitive answers to the research questions posed in the study. Despite some studies that suggest the role of the educator in Appalachia is greatly different from that in urban and more populous regions of the nation and research suggesting that rural educators face a myriad of challenges that educators in urban areas do not face, this study cannot confirm or deny such findings. The study provides some weak to moderate support to the belief that families and individuals in Appalachia have a deep sense of connection to the land, to the historical context of the region, and to families. However, the same may be true for many other regions of the country outside of Appalachia.

The current study may provide a basis or foundation for some additional and more comprehensive studies. Some possible approaches could include: (a) gathering data from other stakeholders in education (including teachers, students, parents, and others), (b) measuring the principals’ perceptions of self-efficacy and the influence of cultural factors against student test data and other measures of student achievement, (c) a qualitative approach that would include visits to schools, interviews, and the gathering of narrative data, (d) using other measures of self-efficacy and of perception of cultural influences, and (e) doing comparative studies between the various regions within Appalachia or with other sections of the country.

Finally, the researchers of this study are themselves natives of West Virginia who have close and affectionate ties to the state and to the larger Appalachian region. While there were no conscious biases in the study or the conclusions drawn from the data, there is no doubt in the minds of the researchers that the cultural features of the area are largely positive and, in conjunction with qualified and motivated educational leaders and teachers, provide a solid basis for preparing the youth of Appalachia with opportunities to succeed in school and in life.

References

  • Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84 (2), 191-215.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
  • Billings, D. (1974). Culture and poverty in Appalachia: A theoretical discussion and empirical analysis. Social Forces, 53 , 315-323.
  • Bizzell, B. (2009). Leading in rural Appalachia. In Makolandra, J., Bezy, K., Delp, C. Bizzell, B., Wray, C., Jones, F., Womack, J., Hutton, N., Jones, A., Wood-Setzer, G., Williams, S., Leonard, N., Nicely, K., Wright, L., Pennington, R.,&Richardson, T. 21 st Century Theories of Educational Administration . Retrieved from Connexions Web site: http://cnx.org/content/col110727/1.1/
  • Brown, R., Copeland, W. Costello, E., Erkanli, A.,&Worthman, C. (2009). Family and community influences on educational outcomes among Appalachian youth. Journal of Community Psychology37 (7), 795-808.
  • Budge, K. (2006). Rural leaders, rural places: Problem, privilege, and possibility. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 21(13), 1-10.
  • Chenoweth, E., and Galliher, R. (2004). Factors influencing college aspirations of rural West Virginia high school students. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 19 (2), 1-14.
  • Cline, V., Kolsun, C., Williams, L.,&Watts, L. (2011). Unpublished survey created in February, 2011, South Charleston, WV.
  • Ford, T. (1962). The passing of provincialism. In T. Ford (Ed.), The Southern Appalachian Region, A Survey (pp. 9-34). Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press.
  • Johnson, J., and Strange, M. (2009). Why rural matters 2009: State and regional challenges and opportunities. Report of the Rural School and Community Trust Policy Program. Website: www.ruraledu.org/whyruralmatters.
  • Johnson, J., Shope, S.,&Roush, J. (2009). Toward a responsive model for educational leadership in rural Appalachia: Merging theory and practice. Retrieved from: (External Link)
  • Howley, C. (2006). Remote possibilities: Rural children’s educational aspirations. Peabody Journal of Education, 81 (2), 62-80.
  • Khattri, N., Riley, K.,&Kane, M. (1997). Students at risk in poor, rural areas: A review of the research. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 13 (2), 79-100.
  • Lewis, R., and Billings, D. (1997). Appalachian culture and economic development. Journal of Appalachian Studies, 3 (1), 1-30.
  • Leithwood, K., Louis, K., Anderson, S.,&Wahlstrom, K. (2004). How leadership influences student learning . Retrieved from The Wallace Foundation website: (External Link)
  • New Leaders for New Schools (2009). Principal effectiveness: A new principalship to drive student achievement, teacher effectiveness, and school turnarounds. Retrieved from: (External Link)
  • Pajares, F. (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retrieved January 5, 2011, from (External Link)
  • Reck, G., Keefe, S.,&Reck, M. (1987). Ethnicity and education in southern Appalachia: Implications for educational equity. Proceedings of the 1987 University of Kentucky Conference on Appalachia.
  • Smith, W., Guarino, A., Strom, P.,&Adams, O. (2006). Effective teaching and learning environments and principal self-efficacy. Journal of Research for Educational Leaders, 3 (2), 4-23.
  • Tschannen-Moran, M., and McMaster, P. (2009). Sources of self-efficacy: Four professional development formats and their relationship to self-efficacy and implementation of a new teaching strategy. The Elementary School Journal, 110 (2), 228-245.
  • Tschannen-Moran, M., and Gareis, C. (2007). Cultivating principals’ self-efficacy: Supports that matter. Journal of School Leadership, 17 , 89-114.
  • Tschannen-Moran, M. and Gareis, C. (2004). Principals’ sense of efficacy. Journal of Educational Administration, 42 (5), 573-585.
  • Tschannen-Moral, M., Woolfolk-Hoy, A.,&Hoy, W. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning And measure. Review of Educational Research, 68 , 202-248.
  • Wallace, L, and Diekroger, D. (2000). The ABCs in Appalachia: A descriptive view of perceptions of higher education in Appalachian culture. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Women of Appalachia, Zanesville, Ohio.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011)' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask