<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Consider what happens in halibut fishing. A very valuable fish. In 2013 fresh Halibut sold for $22 lb or more at Whole Foods. Generally the Halibut fisheries in Alaska are well regulated. The problem lies in areas outside the designated Halibut fisheries. Salmon trawlers in the Gulf of Alaska are allowed to take 4.4 million lbs. of Halibut as by-catch.

But, there are about 14 million pounds of halibut by-catch in non-halibut fisheries (fisheries beyond the zones of regulation). In other words halibut catch outside of the halibut fisheries is about 3 times that of the regulated fishery. A sustainable fish stock cannot be maintained that way.

As we noted, by-catch waste constitutes needless waste. By-catch discards account for about 300 million tons or (20-25%) of total world catch. David Witherell et al., “An Ecosystem-based approach for Alaska groundfish fisheries”, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 2000, Vol.57, p.772. Such large figures signal that by-catch represents both a significant biological and economic loss to fisheries everywhere. Successful ITQ systems in New Zealand, Iceland and Alaska closely regulate by-catch within commercial fisheries, by requiring that by-catch be a part of the quota owner’s catch for the year. In New Zealand and Iceland in particular, discarding by-catch was deemed a serious violation of the rules of the ITQ system. There, fishermen exceeding their limit due to by-catch have to either pay a fine or buy up someone else’s ITQ. Alaska also significantly ameliorated the threat to its fisheries by allowing sablefish fisherman outside of Alaska’s economic zone to hold both halibut and sablefish quotas. This considerably decreased the discarding of halibut. With conventional licenses and weaker types of regulation, the problem of by-catch discards is pervasive across commercial fisheries. By implementing by-catch regulations. ITQ system can further contribute greatly to more sustainable fisheries.

Other very destructive fishing practices will need to be curbed if fishery resources are to be sensibly conserved. Illegal nets, such as purse seine nets that drag the bottom are used often in tuna fishing. Some of these purse-seine nets are up to one mile long. Heavy damage to the sea (floor) also results. Another destructive fishing practice is use of extremely long-line fishing. In some cases these nets are many kilometers long, with tens of thousands of hooks. Worldwide, long lines kill 400,000 dolphins (porpoises) year.

Trawling for fish has become a significant issue in Europe. The European Parliament has been trying to phase out deep-sea trawling. Bottom gill-netting is an especially serious issue in France and Spain, where by-catch has been 20%-40% of the total. Bottom gill-netting also involves serious damage to the sea floor. So far efforts to restrain this practice have gone nowhere in Europe.

Finally, sustainable fisheries can be promoted by prohibiting, or closing fishing during spawning season (Iceland had 180 such enclosures in 2009).

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Economic development for the 21st century' conversation and receive update notifications?