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There was no ITQ initially. There was a 100 day tightly enforced fishing season for halibut. But competition increased so drastically that there was a classic: “race to fish” situation: catch everything while you can. This did not achieve the desired result. So in response the halibut season was reduced, progressively, all the way down to 2 days in 1992.

Imagine 400 boats at anchor in the small harbor of the City of King Salmon – ready to put to sea. This led to the most intensive fishing one could ever observe – boats battling each other for the catch and a sharp rise in fishing deaths.

So, Alaska implemented a variant of an ITQ system in 1995.

As elsewhere, the authorities

  1. Determined the TAC
  2. Provided quotas to each boat owner
  3. Total quotas awarded added up to the TAC, for each year
  4. Quotas were awarded free of charges ( a mistake, hopefully to be corrected)
  5. Each owner’s quota was converted into an ITQ, showing his share of the total
  6. No boat captain or firm was allowed to hold more than 1.5% of the total TAC

How successful has the Alaskan system been?

After a couple of years of missteps, it has been so successful that:

  1. The halibut season has even been extended substantially
  2. Prices for Halibut have climbed, for 2 reasons
    • Fewer Halibut are now caught
    • Now, more halibut can be sold as fresh fish, which attracts a 25% premium over frozen halibut. Under the old system, one caught as much as one could, but froze most in order to not flood the market at any given time
  3. The size of the fishing fleet has halved , from 3,000 to 1,500. There are lessons for other countries from the experience of Iceland and Alaska.

But even where ITQS can be successfully implemented that is probably not enough to forestall threats that may lead to fishing collapses, especially in poorer nations.

Other measures must also be taken: One important measure: End subsidies to fishing .

As noted in chapter ___, many emerging nations (Nigeria, Venezuela, and Indonesia, among many others) heavily subsidize diesel fuel. EU nations subsidize diesel fuel used by fishermen. A very large share (25-30%) of fishing costs is for fuel. And in a few nations, total subsidies to diesel fuel used in fishing boats exceed the actual value of the catch.

A second measure: Prohibit or regulate the discard of “by-catch . Example: In fishing for Tuna boats board a lot of fish of other species that are not as valuable. Most by-catch in most of the world is dumped overboard. Usually the fish are dead or soon will be. By-catch in many nations constitutes 25% of total catch. This is clearly a needless waste of valuable resource.

Regulations are required here; regulations that specify that all by-catch be kept and brought back to port. (By-catch needs to be reported as part of any ITQ). This may seem unreasonable. Suppose the by-catch is the decidedly untasty fish called “Irish Lord.” If the by-catch is not fit to eat, it can be sold for fishmeal and fertilizer. There are good markets for these products.

Trawlers with dragnets are the worst offenders regarding by-catch. The severity of the by-catch problem differs by species and region.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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