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Portions of this book were finished in 2015. Had this chapter been written five years earlier, the general tone regarding fisheries would have been decidedly pessimistic: fisheries worldwide were being rapidly depleted, in spite of conservation efforts discussed below.

However, thus far into the 21st century the world has benefitted from very rapid growth of fish farming in the U.S., Nordic Nations, China, Thailand, Malaysia and Chile. Modern fish farming includes saltwater varieties popular in the diets of people in both developed and emerging nations. If the fish farming industry continues to mature and spread to more countries, future editions of this book may contain a very short chapter on fisheries. Then, what we now view as natural capital will be essentially manufactured capital. It is still too early to celebrate this achievement. Farmed fish may prove to be susceptible to diseases not common to fish in the wild. Fish farming also involves some environmental risks. And some farmed fish do not satisfy human palates as well as the same fish caught in the wild. For example, this was apparently the case for much of farmed salmon from the U.S. and the Nordic countries early on: the farmed fish carried a distinctly different taste. However, the industry seems to believe that this problem will disappear as time passes.

For the time being, at least, the rapid rise of fish farming has materially helped in reduced depletion and stress on natural fisheries. In any case, the world’s natural fisheries remain as an important source of natural capital for emerging and developed nations and will be treated as such. (Details on the farmed fish industry are provided later on in this Chapter).

Significance of fisheries

Fisheries involve issues of resource sustainability that have been largely overlooked for far too long. Abuse of this source of natural capital has worldwide implications, especially as fish pertain to the diet and employment opportunities of poor people in poor nations.

World trade in seafood of all kinds totaled $136 billion in 2013 excluding farm-grown fish. "Unchartered Waters”, Financial Times, Nov. 21, 2014. Worldwide, in 2006 200 million people were employed in fisheries. In poor countries almost 95% are employed in small scale fishing. Worldwide, 2.9 billion people depended on fish for more than 14% of their protein. 20% of the world’s people, mostly in the poorest nations rely on fish as their primary source of protein.

As has been the case for water resources, awareness of fishery resources issues only began to become widespread after 1950. Why? In 1950 only 50% of the world’s fisheries were fully exploited. By 1980, this figure rose to 60%, and by 2008, 80% of fish stocks had been fully exploited. The population of certain highly prized fish species has fallen precipitously. For example the number of Pacific Bluefin tuna in 2012 was but one fourth that of 1995, and one seventh that of the mid-sixties. By 2010 the situation for bluefins had become serious.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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