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Framework

In the years following the Civil War, the land grant universities transformed American higher education.After World War II, the GI Bill further propelled that transformation from an elitist educational system to one open tothe public. The GI Bill itself created no institutions, nor did it mandate institutional behavior; but this direct means ofdistributing opportunity and resources dramatically expanded the number of people who considered college a possibility and promptedcolleges and universities to see themselves as national, rather than local or regional, institutions. Established institutions thatwere responsive to the new opportunities, such as the University of California, flourished.

When the federal government began the direct support of advanced research, the National Science Foundation(NSF), the National Institutes of Health, and, later, the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Endowment for theArts adopted the extramural grant mechanisms pioneered by philanthropic foundations. They combined these mechanisms with thepeer-review practices developed within universities to distribute research support on the basis of competitive applications. Thecompetitive “market” for research support reinforced standards of scholarly excellence and relied on the research ambitions ofindividual scholars to motivate the institutional response of universities in developing their local researchinfrastructures.

The response of American higher education to the GI Bill, and the process developed by the federal government tofund advanced research, demonstrate that frameworks for action can challenge institutions to build upon existing capacities. Thisreport suggests that cyberinfrastructure is another such framework for guiding decisions, allocating resources, and settingdirections. Thinking about structures naturally requires also thinking about functions and their schematic relationship. That theNSF has already adopted cyberinfrastructure as such a framework underlines the need for strategic thinking. The cyberinfrastructureof the humanities and social sciences does not and will not exist independently of the larger academic infrastructure, where thesciences thus far have set priorities. Similarly, academic stakeholders must take account of the even larger social andcommercial cyberinfrastructure that is, increasingly, the platform on which human creativity and social interaction—the subjects ofthe humanities and social sciences—is expressed and takes place.

There follows a framework for action. First, we present five necessary characteristics of a robustcyberinfrastructure in the humanities and social sciences. Second, we identify eight actions that must be undertaken to make thatinfrastructure possible.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, "our cultural commonwealth" the report of the american council of learned societies commission on cyberinfrastructure for the humanities and social sciences. OpenStax CNX. Dec 15, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10391/1.2
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