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But there is a need to be careful to avoid the mistakes of the EU’s system. Far too many permits were issued. As a result, prices of permits so far have been too low to discourage much pollution.

China recently adopted a timid form of Cap and Trade. The Californian plan is more ambitious.

The California cap and trade system was created in 2012. Any business that emits more than 25 thousand tons of CO 2 per year must obtain permits from the state government for those emissions. Most of the permits thus far have been issued free of charge. An auction system was devised to distribute the remainder. From 2012-2014 there have been eight auctions. In the latest, in August 2014, businesses paid $11.50 per ton for permits. A total of $2.27 billion had been raised from the auctions by Fall 2014.

The program has clearly been successful in raising revenues for the state. Whether the program helps to materially reduce emissions has yet to be determined. If the program does work as intended it would have reduced greenhouse gases arising in California by 2% by the end of 2014. Should the program prove successful, it may become a model for other states, or even the National Government.

5. encourage worldwide shifts from coal-fired power plants to natural-gas fired plants

A typical coal plant burns 10 million BTUs of fuel to produce one megawatt hour of electricity, but an efficient natural gas power plant burns only 7 million BTUs to get one M.W. of electricity.

That is a 30% reduction in fuel, and the natural gas yields as much as 50% lower carbon emissions. In addition construction gas-fired plants is cheap relative to those for coal. Gas-fired plants cost to build only $1 million per M.W. hours. So a 650 M.W. plant costs $650 million. But a new coal-fired plant costs $3 million per M.W. hour to build, or triple that for a gas plant.

6. invest in programs to make low carbon energy cheaper

For the short to medium-term, the whole world could carefully consider the example of France which relies heavily on nuclear with relatively few problems. If the U.S. is serious about reducing carbon emissions, nuclear energy there requires a sober, new look. However, because of very high capital costs and long construction periods, new nuclear capacity is not competitive without a carbon tax of at least $20 per ton especially when natural gas is as low as $2.00 or $3.00 per million per BTU (British Thermal Units).

Developed and emerging nations are also beginning to capitalize on opportunities in such non-traditional energy sources including wind, solar and tidal power to ultimately bring their combined share of energy to at least 15% by 2025. Technologies in all three, especially wind, are finally beginning to mature, and the costs of deployment are falling.

Sensible investment in bio-fuels, including bio-diesel produced by algae and even bio-fuel from sugar and plant waste could contribute to reduction in emissions as long as it is recognized that the U.S. program for ethanol from corn is not a sensible answer to any question (except the Iowa caucus in Presidential election years). This is one of the most ill conceived subsidy programs ever. Not only does it not , on balance, provide any significant incremental energy, it greatly pollutes the soil and the ocean.

Appendix chapter 17: project evaluation and sustainability

This appendix reviews concepts on discount rates and NPV and IRR. Note that the terms project appraisal project evaluation and cost-benefit analysis are used interchangeably.

Private Sector Project Evaluation ----Uses market information

1. NPV = - K o + R 1 - C 1 1 + r + R 2 - C 2 ( 1 + r ) 2 + . . . + R n - C n ( 1 + r ) n

Where:

  • K o = Initial Capital Costs (Front End Loaded Capital Costs)
  • R = Revenues accruing to a private firm
  • C = Costs to the firm

This is all market information
NOTE: For years 1thru n costs include any capital expenditures in addition to K o , but not depreciation.

  • r = Opportunity cost of capital to firm (the discount rate)

Government investments

For government (public investments in projects and any multi-year program such as those intended to curtail CO 2 emissions

2. NPV G = - K o + B * 1 - C * 1 1 + i + B * 2 - C * 2 ( 1 + r ) 2 + . . . + B * n - C * n ( 1 + r ) n

Where:

  • B* = Measured benefits ($, lives saved, floods prevented etc.)
  • C* = ($, plus any costs due to externalities)
  • i = Social discount rate when [o<i<r] - Social rate less then private rate. To be explained.

The Stern Review cited in this chapter utilizes the NPV framework to forecast the future net costs of global warming. Example:

NPV wm = - K o + B 1 - C * 1 1 + i + B 2 - C * 2 ( 1 + r ) 2 + . . . + B n - C * n ( 1 + r ) n

Where:

  • B 1 , B 2 , B 3 = Benefits are assumed to be negligible or middling, depending on the deca2de
  • C* = Costs of global warming to society worldwide (costs alternate on sea-level rise, temperature changes, presumed higher level incidences of tropical diseases(dengue fever, malaria etc.)

It is to be noted that the Stern Review uses a very low rate of social discount (0.01%) that with a low discount rate, costs emerging decades from now are unduly magnified. And , the really big costs do not emerge for decades.

*Major point: Stern uses a social discount rate of 0.01%

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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