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1. curtail deforestation especially tropical deforestation

We have already noted in Chapter ___ that after China and the U.S., the largest source of CO 2 emissions has in years from 1975-2010, come from Brazil and Indonesia, owing to annual deforestation of wide swaths of their tropical forests. Forests annually absorb millions of tons of CO 2 through photosynthesis. As we noted earlier forest destruction and in particular burning of forests is responsible for 20% of Global Carbon emissions annually. Higher taxes and royalties on timber harvests, reforms on property rights, plus removal of all subsidies for forest clearing and for ethanol from palm oil would contribute materially to curtailing buildup of greenhouse gasses, and contribute to other economic and environmental goals as well.

2. drastically curtail all subsidies for consumption of fossil fuels (and ethanol from corn) worldwide

We have previously discussed in Chapter 17, energy subsidies at length and their impact on income distribution (very pro-rich) and resource allocation (economic waste).

In 2012 a dozen nations account for 75% of the worlds subsidies on oil, gas and diesel fuel. All but one are emerging nations. Iran tops the list at $82 Billion. Saudi Arabia was next at $81 Billion, then Russia, China and India. Each of these spent $60 Billion on the subsidy. Other major energy subsidizers: Venezuela, Egypt, Mexico and Algeria, and until late 2014, Indonesia.

In addition mindless U.S. subsidies to 120 plants producing ethanol from corn are as reckless and pernicious as any subsidy anywhere.

The policy has been clearly misguided. Scientists in 2007 warned of the danger of failure of the Federal Corn for Ethanol policy as an anti-global warming tool. Too many Midwest farmers plowed over virgin land to plant more corn. Since 2007, 6.7 million acres of grassland and conservation land has been lost since the federal government required that gasoline be blended with ethanol. How big is 6.7 million acres? Larger than Yellowstone Park, Everglades Park and Yosemite Park all combined. Further 1700 gallons of increasingly precious fresh water is required for the corn needed for each gallon of ethanol. Plowing virgin grasslands to get more acerage for corn releases CO 2 locked into the soil. Making matters worse, the corn farmers have used increasing volumes of fertilizer especially nitrogen and other chemicals that eventually end up in rivers in the region and ultimately, the Gulf of Mexico.

The nitrogen and other chemicals leak into watersheds. Massive applications of fertilizer for corn in the Midwest have vastly enlarged the “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico – an 8,000 sq. mile area where nothing can survive. As of 2009, 30% of the nation’s corn crop was used to make ethanol that amounted to 8% of U.S. gasoline supplies. Just to replace 10% of U.S. gas and diesel consumption, the U.S. would need to convert 40% of cropland to ethanol.

3. enact new and/or increase existing carbon taxes

Existing taxes can be increased to provide further market -based incentives to curtail growth of CO 2 emissions. In any dynamic strategy, such taxes are best linked to actual global warming. Once the relationship between atmospheric CO 2 and global warming is more closely established, carbon emissions taxes could be made rise by $4 to $20 per decade, depending on need.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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