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There have been repeated warnings from the U.N. Some climate specialists believe that limiting emissions to 42 billion metric tons annually by 2030 and further limiting emissions to 22 billion tons by 2050, would allow the world to stay within the 2° centigrade “tipping point. The U.N. considers this limit to be ineffective in holding warming to 2° centigrade. United Nations Enviromental Program, The Emission Gap Report 2014. According to the U.N. Undersecretary for the Environment, “The time window for reaching the 2° level is closing, closing, and the costs of getting to that goal is increasing, increasing”.

Those who forecast catastrophe are essentially saying that unchecked, global warming could eventually lead to an environmental GOTTERDAMMERUNG, a word made prominent in Richard Wagner’s last opera in his Ring Series in 1876. Gotterdammerung is a translation into German of an Old Norse phrase: Bagnarök, which in Norse mythology refers to a war between the gods that brings about the end of the world and its later renewal. Basically Gotterdammerung means when “all hell breaks loose”.

Whatever the cause, global climate change has become a serious problem for the whole world, and the consensus is clearly that human activity is the leading cause.

Effects of climate change

The potential consequences for poorer nations look to be even more serious than for rich nations. It may widen income gaps between rich and poor nations because of the differential effects of higher temperatures. According to the World Bank, emerging nations will bear the brunt of the effects of climate change, World Bank, World Development Report: Development and Climate Change, Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2010, p.xiii. specifically that they would bear 75% to 80% of the costs of damages caused by changing climate.

Data for nearly 140 countries from 1950-2008 suggest that higher temperatures would have negative effects on growth in poor countries, but not so much rich ones. Estimates of effects vary. A recent NBER study Dell M., Jones B.F., Olken B.A. 2008. Climate Shocks and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Half Century. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 14132. Available at www.nber.org/papers/w14132. finds that a temperature increase of 1° Celsius would mean a decline in world per capita GDP or 8.5%. Still another recent study of emerging nations alone arrives at the much less pessimistic conclusion that a 1oC increase in surface temperature would lead to reductions of only 1% in per capita GDP. “The Weather Report”, The Economist , January 18, 2014, p.76. Finally, the World Bank estimates that even with 2°C warming, the minimum the world is likely to expect, could result in permanent reduction in GDP for Africa and South Asia. World Bank, op.cit. pp.XX. How might high temperatures reduce growth rate in poorer nations?

  1. Lower crop yields in the tropics, but likely not in temperate zones.
  2. Resurgence of tropical diseases and Northern migration such as malaria and yellow fever.
  3. Sea level rise flooding Bangladesh, Maldives, parts of Coasts of India, Thailand, and other low lying areas.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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