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There have been repeated warnings from the U.N. Some climate specialists believe that limiting emissions to 42 billion metric tons annually by 2030 and further limiting emissions to 22 billion tons by 2050, would allow the world to stay within the 2° centigrade “tipping point. The U.N. considers this limit to be ineffective in holding warming to 2° centigrade. United Nations Enviromental Program, The Emission Gap Report 2014. According to the U.N. Undersecretary for the Environment, “The time window for reaching the 2° level is closing, closing, and the costs of getting to that goal is increasing, increasing”.

Those who forecast catastrophe are essentially saying that unchecked, global warming could eventually lead to an environmental GOTTERDAMMERUNG, a word made prominent in Richard Wagner’s last opera in his Ring Series in 1876. Gotterdammerung is a translation into German of an Old Norse phrase: Bagnarök, which in Norse mythology refers to a war between the gods that brings about the end of the world and its later renewal. Basically Gotterdammerung means when “all hell breaks loose”.

Whatever the cause, global climate change has become a serious problem for the whole world, and the consensus is clearly that human activity is the leading cause.

Effects of climate change

The potential consequences for poorer nations look to be even more serious than for rich nations. It may widen income gaps between rich and poor nations because of the differential effects of higher temperatures. According to the World Bank, emerging nations will bear the brunt of the effects of climate change, World Bank, World Development Report: Development and Climate Change, Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2010, p.xiii. specifically that they would bear 75% to 80% of the costs of damages caused by changing climate.

Data for nearly 140 countries from 1950-2008 suggest that higher temperatures would have negative effects on growth in poor countries, but not so much rich ones. Estimates of effects vary. A recent NBER study Dell M., Jones B.F., Olken B.A. 2008. Climate Shocks and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Half Century. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 14132. Available at www.nber.org/papers/w14132. finds that a temperature increase of 1° Celsius would mean a decline in world per capita GDP or 8.5%. Still another recent study of emerging nations alone arrives at the much less pessimistic conclusion that a 1oC increase in surface temperature would lead to reductions of only 1% in per capita GDP. “The Weather Report”, The Economist , January 18, 2014, p.76. Finally, the World Bank estimates that even with 2°C warming, the minimum the world is likely to expect, could result in permanent reduction in GDP for Africa and South Asia. World Bank, op.cit. pp.XX. How might high temperatures reduce growth rate in poorer nations?

  1. Lower crop yields in the tropics, but likely not in temperate zones.
  2. Resurgence of tropical diseases and Northern migration such as malaria and yellow fever.
  3. Sea level rise flooding Bangladesh, Maldives, parts of Coasts of India, Thailand, and other low lying areas.

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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