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Implications of climate change

Some doubt that global warming is underway. The Author of this book believes otherwise. He has personally witnessed the gradual retreat, since 1995 of glaciers in the Northern Hemisphere (Alaska), the Southern Hemisphere, Patagonia (in Southern Chile) and in the high Andes of Peru. And there is abundant, well vetted evidence of global warming in Polar Regions, especially the Arctic, from Alaska to Greenland to Siberia and beyond. Indeed there are some indications that the Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the world. See for example, “The Melting North”, The Economist , June 16, 2012, pp.3-10. The subtropics have not been unaffected. Temperatures in Northern Kenya have become so hot during daytime that farming, school attendance and other daily undertakings has become a struggle for rural villagers. For example, students now attend classes from 6 to 9 PM and from dawn for two more hours, to avoid the heat of midday.

While clearly in some important regions, the earth has been warming, can we be certain about the causes? Human activity that generates greenhouse gases is surely a major part of the problem. How much is difficult to say, but it is clearly the view of most (not all) members of the relevant scientific communities that the prime cause is human activity. This view is clearly stated in the Landmark Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “Summary for Policymakers, in Climate Change 2007, The Fourth Assessment Report.” See also Nicholas Stern “The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review”, Cambridge University Press, 2007. This has been called the anthropogenic view of global warming.

However, human activity has not been the only cause of global climate change. Major shifts in ocean current (such as the Gulf Stream or the Humboldt Current) could account for a portion, since the oceans are never in equilibrium. Ali Kilcik, “Regional Sun-climate Interaction”, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics , Vol. 67(16): 1573-79, November 2005. But even more important may be changes in solar cycles, according to some studies. Certainly there have been interaction between solar phenomena and warming. One study has suggested that half the warming over the 20 th century may be explained by solar changes. N. Scafetta and B.J. West, “Phenomenological Solar Contribution to 1900-2000 Surface Global Warming”, Geophysical Research Letters , Vol. 33(5), March 2006.

Many predict looming calamity from global warming. In March 2012 two Australian climate scientists asserted that this is the last decade the world has to act before we pass the “tipping point” of 2 degree Celsius warming. This would be especially harmful for tropical, emerging nations. Warnings from other sources are even more dire. The MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy Change forecasts that with no policy changes to curb emissions of greenhouse gases, global average surface temperatures could rise by as much as 5.2 degrees centigrade, bringing with it disaster. The MIT group also maintains that even if policy changes do succeed in limiting 21 st century emissions to desired level, the median predicted warming level would be 2.3C. Mark Jaccard, “An Economist’s Journey”, Science , Vol. 343(6169), January 2014, pp.371-372.

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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