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Implications of climate change

Some doubt that global warming is underway. The Author of this book believes otherwise. He has personally witnessed the gradual retreat, since 1995 of glaciers in the Northern Hemisphere (Alaska), the Southern Hemisphere, Patagonia (in Southern Chile) and in the high Andes of Peru. And there is abundant, well vetted evidence of global warming in Polar Regions, especially the Arctic, from Alaska to Greenland to Siberia and beyond. Indeed there are some indications that the Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the world. See for example, “The Melting North”, The Economist , June 16, 2012, pp.3-10. The subtropics have not been unaffected. Temperatures in Northern Kenya have become so hot during daytime that farming, school attendance and other daily undertakings has become a struggle for rural villagers. For example, students now attend classes from 6 to 9 PM and from dawn for two more hours, to avoid the heat of midday.

While clearly in some important regions, the earth has been warming, can we be certain about the causes? Human activity that generates greenhouse gases is surely a major part of the problem. How much is difficult to say, but it is clearly the view of most (not all) members of the relevant scientific communities that the prime cause is human activity. This view is clearly stated in the Landmark Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “Summary for Policymakers, in Climate Change 2007, The Fourth Assessment Report.” See also Nicholas Stern “The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review”, Cambridge University Press, 2007. This has been called the anthropogenic view of global warming.

However, human activity has not been the only cause of global climate change. Major shifts in ocean current (such as the Gulf Stream or the Humboldt Current) could account for a portion, since the oceans are never in equilibrium. Ali Kilcik, “Regional Sun-climate Interaction”, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics , Vol. 67(16): 1573-79, November 2005. But even more important may be changes in solar cycles, according to some studies. Certainly there have been interaction between solar phenomena and warming. One study has suggested that half the warming over the 20 th century may be explained by solar changes. N. Scafetta and B.J. West, “Phenomenological Solar Contribution to 1900-2000 Surface Global Warming”, Geophysical Research Letters , Vol. 33(5), March 2006.

Many predict looming calamity from global warming. In March 2012 two Australian climate scientists asserted that this is the last decade the world has to act before we pass the “tipping point” of 2 degree Celsius warming. This would be especially harmful for tropical, emerging nations. Warnings from other sources are even more dire. The MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy Change forecasts that with no policy changes to curb emissions of greenhouse gases, global average surface temperatures could rise by as much as 5.2 degrees centigrade, bringing with it disaster. The MIT group also maintains that even if policy changes do succeed in limiting 21 st century emissions to desired level, the median predicted warming level would be 2.3C. Mark Jaccard, “An Economist’s Journey”, Science , Vol. 343(6169), January 2014, pp.371-372.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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