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Perhaps by coincidence, and perhaps not, 2030 is the year in which total Chinese population is forecast to begin to decline, owing primarily to the “one-child” per family program initiated in the eighties and relaxed slightly in 2013.

In any case, several years will pass before the effectiveness of this latest accord can be expected to have any material effects upon global carbon emissions. Skepticism abounds, not only in the U.S., but in much of Europe as well. Criticism of the U.S.-China Accord has come from what could be called unexpected sources including Lord Browne, former CEO of British Petroleum. To quote:

The targets agreed by President Obama and President Xi will not be achieved with the policies in place. They will require new policies that could reduce the two countries oil demand by more than 17 billion barrels of oil over the next 15 years. Pilita Clark, “Energy Groups Face Existential Climate Threat, Warns ex-BP Chief”, Financial Times , November 19, 2014.

Skeptics, however, should bear in mind that international agreements to reduce damage to the atmosphere and climate are not by any means doomed to failure. A case in point is the Montreal Protocol, signed in that Canadian City in 1987. The purpose of this agreement was to reduce the atmospheric presence of ozone – depleting substances (ODSs) in the stratosphere especially hydrofluorocarbon (HCFC). These substances were adjudged by scientists to be responsible for very harmful depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, especially in polar regions. There the “ozone hole” in the atmosphere was gaping above Antarctica, thereby depleting the ozone layer. Most of the ODSs are also potent greenhouse gases.

The ozone layer is vitally important to humans, animals and plants because it protects life from ultraviolet (UV) radiation from space.

The U.S. and other larger industrialized nations before 1987 were the principal sources of emissions of ODSs. Virtually all emitting nations, including the U.S. were signatories to the Montreal Protocol. After more than a quarter century of experience, the Montreal Protocol may be adjudged successful. While the ozone layer remains in some danger because several ODSs remain in the atmosphere long after emissions end, and some HCFCs in some years (2007-08) have increased at rapid rates, the risks to the layer have been materially reduced by worldwide actions to control the global production and consumption of ODSs since 1997.

The majority of these substances have been phased out of production, while demand for substitutes for HCFCs such as perfluorocarbons (PFCs) has increased. This has helped protect the ozone layer, but some of these substances are potent greenhouse gases as well.

In any case, the Montreal Protocol and its amendments since 1997 have served to reduce ozone-depleting substances by about 10 billion metric tons by 2011. By comparison, global emissions of CO 2 exceeded 35 billion tons per year in 2014. The Montreal Protocol, even with its less-than-perfect results, stands as an example of what can be achieved when commitments to agreement on measures for atmospheric protection are firm and widespread.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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