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Perhaps by coincidence, and perhaps not, 2030 is the year in which total Chinese population is forecast to begin to decline, owing primarily to the “one-child” per family program initiated in the eighties and relaxed slightly in 2013.

In any case, several years will pass before the effectiveness of this latest accord can be expected to have any material effects upon global carbon emissions. Skepticism abounds, not only in the U.S., but in much of Europe as well. Criticism of the U.S.-China Accord has come from what could be called unexpected sources including Lord Browne, former CEO of British Petroleum. To quote:

The targets agreed by President Obama and President Xi will not be achieved with the policies in place. They will require new policies that could reduce the two countries oil demand by more than 17 billion barrels of oil over the next 15 years. Pilita Clark, “Energy Groups Face Existential Climate Threat, Warns ex-BP Chief”, Financial Times , November 19, 2014.

Skeptics, however, should bear in mind that international agreements to reduce damage to the atmosphere and climate are not by any means doomed to failure. A case in point is the Montreal Protocol, signed in that Canadian City in 1987. The purpose of this agreement was to reduce the atmospheric presence of ozone – depleting substances (ODSs) in the stratosphere especially hydrofluorocarbon (HCFC). These substances were adjudged by scientists to be responsible for very harmful depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, especially in polar regions. There the “ozone hole” in the atmosphere was gaping above Antarctica, thereby depleting the ozone layer. Most of the ODSs are also potent greenhouse gases.

The ozone layer is vitally important to humans, animals and plants because it protects life from ultraviolet (UV) radiation from space.

The U.S. and other larger industrialized nations before 1987 were the principal sources of emissions of ODSs. Virtually all emitting nations, including the U.S. were signatories to the Montreal Protocol. After more than a quarter century of experience, the Montreal Protocol may be adjudged successful. While the ozone layer remains in some danger because several ODSs remain in the atmosphere long after emissions end, and some HCFCs in some years (2007-08) have increased at rapid rates, the risks to the layer have been materially reduced by worldwide actions to control the global production and consumption of ODSs since 1997.

The majority of these substances have been phased out of production, while demand for substitutes for HCFCs such as perfluorocarbons (PFCs) has increased. This has helped protect the ozone layer, but some of these substances are potent greenhouse gases as well.

In any case, the Montreal Protocol and its amendments since 1997 have served to reduce ozone-depleting substances by about 10 billion metric tons by 2011. By comparison, global emissions of CO 2 exceeded 35 billion tons per year in 2014. The Montreal Protocol, even with its less-than-perfect results, stands as an example of what can be achieved when commitments to agreement on measures for atmospheric protection are firm and widespread.

Questions & Answers

what is math number
Tric Reply
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
Alfred Reply
An investment account was opened with an initial deposit of $9,600 and earns 7.4% interest, compounded continuously. How much will the account be worth after 15 years?
Kala Reply
lim x to infinity e^1-e^-1/log(1+x)
given eccentricity and a point find the equiation
Moses Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Alexandra Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Akash
College algebra is really hard?
Shirleen Reply
Absolutely, for me. My problems with math started in First grade...involving a nun Sister Anastasia, bad vision, talking & getting expelled from Catholic school. When it comes to math I just can't focus and all I can hear is our family silverware banging and clanging on the pink Formica table.
Carole
I'm 13 and I understand it great
AJ
I am 1 year old but I can do it! 1+1=2 proof very hard for me though.
Atone
hi
Adu
Not really they are just easy concepts which can be understood if you have great basics. I am 14 I understood them easily.
Vedant
find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
If f(x) = x-2 then, f(3) when 5f(x+1) 5((3-2)+1) 5(1+1) 5(2) 10
Augustine
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
make 5/4 into a mixed number, make that a decimal, and then multiply 32 by the decimal 5/4 turns out to be
AJ
how
Sheref
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
hi
Ayuba
Hello
opoku
hi
Ali
greetings from Iran
Ali
salut. from Algeria
Bach
hi
Nharnhar
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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