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Perhaps by coincidence, and perhaps not, 2030 is the year in which total Chinese population is forecast to begin to decline, owing primarily to the “one-child” per family program initiated in the eighties and relaxed slightly in 2013.

In any case, several years will pass before the effectiveness of this latest accord can be expected to have any material effects upon global carbon emissions. Skepticism abounds, not only in the U.S., but in much of Europe as well. Criticism of the U.S.-China Accord has come from what could be called unexpected sources including Lord Browne, former CEO of British Petroleum. To quote:

The targets agreed by President Obama and President Xi will not be achieved with the policies in place. They will require new policies that could reduce the two countries oil demand by more than 17 billion barrels of oil over the next 15 years. Pilita Clark, “Energy Groups Face Existential Climate Threat, Warns ex-BP Chief”, Financial Times , November 19, 2014.

Skeptics, however, should bear in mind that international agreements to reduce damage to the atmosphere and climate are not by any means doomed to failure. A case in point is the Montreal Protocol, signed in that Canadian City in 1987. The purpose of this agreement was to reduce the atmospheric presence of ozone – depleting substances (ODSs) in the stratosphere especially hydrofluorocarbon (HCFC). These substances were adjudged by scientists to be responsible for very harmful depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, especially in polar regions. There the “ozone hole” in the atmosphere was gaping above Antarctica, thereby depleting the ozone layer. Most of the ODSs are also potent greenhouse gases.

The ozone layer is vitally important to humans, animals and plants because it protects life from ultraviolet (UV) radiation from space.

The U.S. and other larger industrialized nations before 1987 were the principal sources of emissions of ODSs. Virtually all emitting nations, including the U.S. were signatories to the Montreal Protocol. After more than a quarter century of experience, the Montreal Protocol may be adjudged successful. While the ozone layer remains in some danger because several ODSs remain in the atmosphere long after emissions end, and some HCFCs in some years (2007-08) have increased at rapid rates, the risks to the layer have been materially reduced by worldwide actions to control the global production and consumption of ODSs since 1997.

The majority of these substances have been phased out of production, while demand for substitutes for HCFCs such as perfluorocarbons (PFCs) has increased. This has helped protect the ozone layer, but some of these substances are potent greenhouse gases as well.

In any case, the Montreal Protocol and its amendments since 1997 have served to reduce ozone-depleting substances by about 10 billion metric tons by 2011. By comparison, global emissions of CO 2 exceeded 35 billion tons per year in 2014. The Montreal Protocol, even with its less-than-perfect results, stands as an example of what can be achieved when commitments to agreement on measures for atmospheric protection are firm and widespread.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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