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Chapter 5 and its sections give the definition of nano-science and nano material, gives examples of nano-materials and its external manifestation. Subsequently the classification of nano-materials and formation of stable nano-structure.

Chapter 5_Introduction-Nanomaterials.

The Universe ranges from 10 28 cm to 10 -33 cm. The first Length is the distance from our Earth to the observable Event Horizon of the Universe which is 13.8blightyears(ly) = 4.23313 b parsec(pc) = 1.30622×10 26 m. The second length is Planck’s Length:

Planck’s Length sets the fundamental limit on the accuracy of length measuremment.

As proto-human-society and human society has developed, its capabilities have developed. Its tool materials improved from flint stones to copper to bronze to iron implements to steel to polymers to Silicon and finally to nano-materials. In Table 5.1, we show the development of Proto-human society due to anatomical changes in homo-species. Once modern humans emerged human society has developed both due to the development of relation of production and due to the development of tools of production.

Relation of production has developed from primitive communism to slavery to feudal and to the capitalist society. The modern Capitalist Society is experiencing the labour pains for delivering a Socialistic Society.

The scale of production has evolved from Small Scale Owner Managed Production to Large Scale Corporate Managed Production.

Table 5.1. Stages of development in Proto Human Society and Human Society based on anatomical changes, based on relation of production and based on the development of means of production.

Date(ya) 1 Anatomical 3 Relation of Production Materials used Means of Production
4M AustralopethicusAfarensis Savage&Primitive communism Primitive tools, no hand grip 2 . Roots&fruits gatherer
2.5M Homo-habilis(handy man) Savage&Primitive communism Choppers&Flakes, Oldwan Style Foraging&scavenging
Discovery of fire
1.9M Homo-erectus(erect man) Savage&Primitivecommunism Refined, precisionGrip features developed hunting
800,000 Homo-sapiens(intelligent man) Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm Precision Grip matured&tear shaped hand axesDeveloped,so-calledAcheulean style hunting
200,000 Modern humansEmerge in AFRICA Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm hunting
70,000(last ice age begins) Migrate out of Africa and replace all primitive homo-species. Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm STONE AGE, , cave-dwelling, refined flint-stone tools hunting
50,000 Modern Humans reachAustralia and get isolated as Australian Aborigines. Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm Stone tools and weapons hunting
50,000To 40,000 Migration to Asia Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm Stone tools and weapons hunting
40,000 to30,000 In;land migration from Asia to Europe Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm Stone tools and weapons hunting
Modern humans push toCentral Asia and arrived in the grassy steppes of Himalaya Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm Stone tools and weapons hunting
From S.E.Asia and China, migration to Japan&Siberia took place. Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm Stone tools and weapons hunting
North Asians migrated to N.America via land bridge across Arctic from Siberia Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm Stone tools and weapons hunting
10,000 Great delugeModern Humans Barbarians&Civilized Society-Private Property, Monogamous Family, State

COPPER AGE

Hunting&agriculture for fodder
9,000 Modern Humans Slavery Native Copper used.Smelted Copper used, Mining, Agriculture for grains, artisans

BRONZE AGE

6,000…5,500…5,500… Modern Humans Feudalism Silver,Tin,Bronze. Mining, Agriculture, artisans
3,400 to1800CE Modern Humans

IRON AGE

1800CE to 1940CE Modern Humans Capitalism

STEEL AGE

Industrial Revolution&Large Scale Production
1940-1960CE Modern Humans Capitalism

POLYMER AGE

Factory production
1960CE to present Modern Humans

SILICON AGE

Computerization, Automation, Robotization&Miniaturization
1980 to present Modern Humans

NANO AGE

Miniaturization&System Integration

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
what is hormones?
Wellington
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Source:  OpenStax, Electrical and electronic materials science. OpenStax CNX. May 01, 2014 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11615/1.14
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