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Administration within a local Baptist church is divided between the pastor and the diaconate, the latter a lay group of unspecified number. The selection of deacons occurs as part of the formation of a church or as soon as the membership includes qualified men to fill the position. Baptist churches generally refer to I Timothy 2:1-5 for those qualifications. Since the New Testament also mentions a woman named Phoebe who served as a

(Romans 16:1), Baptist churches have, in some periods of their history, appointed women to serve in that capacity. English Baptists listed the office in their earliest seventeenth-century confessions of faith and left numerous records of the performance of deaconesses in specific congregations. Although they were formally ordained and sometimes financially maintained by the church, deaconesses were not equivalent to deacons, but were assigned the special task of visiting and caring for the sick. Charles W. Deweese, "Deaconesses in Baptist History: A Preliminary Study," Baptist History and Heritage , XII (January 1977), 53.

Deaconesses made their appearance among Baptists in America, as in England, in a period of intense preoccupation with liberty—in America's case, the latter half of the eighteenth century. These women, like their English counterparts, concerned themselves with the sick and poor, tending to

those things wherefor men are less fit.
\ Ibid., p. 54. As mentioned previously, deaconesses were common among the Separate Baptists who spread widely through the back-country of the South during that period. Their numbers declined, however, after 1800, due to the tightening of orthodoxy that accompanied the mergers of Baptist groups and the official establishment of a denominational hierarchy (exclusively male) and to the suppression of women that was invoked by southern males' reaction to the abolition and suffrage movements. Charles Deweese suggests that another reason for the decline of deaconesses was the growing tendency to limit the diaconate to business and management functions, excluding the caring and supporting ministries. Ibid., pp. 54-55.

Women continued to fill the same benevolent roles without ordained status, and they assisted deacons by serving on committees to approach other

who were subjects of church discipline Sweet, p. 49. and by helping with the preparation for the baptism of women, as modesty dictated. Women voted on candidates for church membership and on basic church documents, but throughout the nineteenth century, the
of the church was restricted more and more to meetings male members were specifically required to attend. Although a woman was responsible, in many cases, for writing or asking a pastor to come and form a church, once the church was established, her official leadership was inevitably surrendered to males.

Since women had lost designated roles in church government and had been virtually silenced in worship, they pushed for a re-evaluation of their place in the local church in the period of cultural shifting that followed the Civil War. They did so in part by reviving the concept of deaconess. That office was a continual topic of controversy from the time the Texas Baptist church revived from Reconstruction until shortly after the turn of the century. Prior to the consolidation of state Baptist forces, the convention of the south-central portion of the state debated the topic "Do the Scriptures Authorize the Appointment of Women as Deaconesses?" at its 1884 annual meeting. McBeth, p. 142, quoting Minutes of the Baptist State Convention of Texas, 1884 , p. 53. No record of the content of that debate exists, but interest in the issue might have been generated by the organization in 1880 of a women's mission society in conjunction with the State Convention. A few churches named women to the office of deaconess, including the First Baptist Church of Waco, Frank Burkhalter, A World-Visioned Church (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1946), p. but it is likely these were women in charge of the "circles" that the pastor, B. H. Carroll, directed. Mrs. W. J. J. Smith, A Centennial History of the Baptist Women of Texas: 1830-1930 (Dallas: Woman's Missionary Union of Texas, 1933), pp. 49-50. Given Carroll's outspoken chauvinism, they could not have exercised congregation-wide leadership, McBeth, p. 143, concurs with this opinion. although they were undoubtedly influential among the women.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Patricia martin's phd thesis. OpenStax CNX. Dec 12, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11462/1.1
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