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To spot the difference between these two molecules, we need to rely on our previously developed knowledge of electronegativities, molecular geometries, and molecular polarity. HCl is a polar linear molecular because the Cl atom is much more electronegative than the H atom. Si atoms are actually slightly less electronegative than H atoms, suggesting that SiH 4 should also be polar. But, we also recall from our electron domain model that SiH 4 has a symmetric tetrahedral geometry, like CH 4 . As such, like CH 4 , SiH 4 has no molecular dipole moment. From this comparison, we can conclude that, in comparing two molecules with similar dispersion forces, the molecule with a dipole moment will have stronger intermolecular attractions than the molecule without a dipole moment. This explains why, in each period in Figure 5, the Group IV hydride compound always has the lowest boiling point. Each of these compounds has nonpolar molecules due to their symmetry. By contrast, two HCl molecules will have stronger attractions as the positive end of one HCl will be attracted to the negative end of the other HCl, and vice versa.

We can now conclude that molecules attract one another via dispersion forces and, if the molecules are polar, via dipole-dipole attractions. Understanding these two types of intermolecular attractions works well to explain the major patterns observed in Figure 5.

This does not explain the exceptions, however. Why are the boiling points of NH 3 , H 2 O, and HF so abnormally high? Given that these are small mass molecules, we would not expect them to have larger than average dispersion forces. All three are polar molecules, but there is nothing to suggest that there dipole moments are unusually high. There must be a different type of intermolecular attraction that is unique to these three molecules out of this set of molecules.

We need a pattern to analyze. What do these three molecules have in common with each other that the other molecules in Table 1 do not? N, O, and F are all strongly electronegative atoms and are also amongst the smallest atoms in the periodic table. In the Lewis structures for all three molecules, O, N and F all have non-bonded, lone pairs of electrons. These three properties, taken together in a single molecule, must present a uniquely strong intermolecular attraction.

Chemists account for this strong bonding via a model called “hydrogen bonding.” This is a uniquely strong form of dipole-dipole attraction that only occurs when a molecule contains a hydrogen atom bonded to an N atom, an O atom, or an F atom. Due to the strength of the electronegativity of these atoms, the N-H bond or O-H bond or F-H bond is highly polar, meaning that the H atom is almost a bare, positively charged hydrogen nucleus. This strong positive charge on one molecule is in turn strongly attracted to the negatively charged lone pair electrons on the N, O, or F atom of another molecule. This is illustrated in Figure 7.

Note that size seems to be important in hydrogen bonding as well. HF has a much higher boiling point than HCl, indicating that HF has stronger intermolecular attractions. Even though the Cl atom is strongly electronegative and has lone pair electrons in the HCl molecule, the Cl atom is apparently too large to support the uniquely strong dipole-dipole attraction we call hydrogen bonding.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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