# 0.16 Lab 10b - image processing (part 2)  (Page 4/5)

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Depending on the pixel size, you sometimes need to view a halftoned image from a short distance to appreciate the effect. The natural filtering (blurring) of the visual system allows you to perceive many different shades, even though the only colors displayed are black and white!

## Ordered dithering

Halftone images are binary images that appear to have a gray scale rendition.Although the random thresholding technique described in "Binary Images" can be used to produce a halftone image, it is not often used in real applications since it yields very noisy results.In this section, we will describe a better halftoning technique known as ordered dithering .

The human visual system tends to average a region around a pixel instead of treating each pixel individually, thusit is possible to create the illusion of many gray levels in a binary image, even though there are actually only two gray levels.With $2×2$ binary pixel grids, we can represent 5 different “effective” intensity levels, as shown in [link] . Similarly for $3×3$ grids, we can represent 10 distinct gray levels. In dithering, we replace blocks of the original image with these typesof binary grid patterns.

Remember from "Binary Images" that false contouring artifacts can be reduced if we can reduce the signal dependence or the quantization error.We showed that adding uniform noise to the monochrome image can be used to achieve this decorrelation. An alternative methodwould be to use a variable threshold value for the quantization process.

Ordered dithering consists of comparing blocks of the original image to a 2-D grid, known as a dither pattern . Each element of the block is then quantized using the corresponding valuein the dither pattern as a threshold. The values in the dither matrix are fixed, but are typically different from each other. Because the thresholdvalue varies between adjacent pixels, some decorrelation from the quantization erroris achieved, which has the effect of reducing false contouring.

The following is an example of a $2×2$ dither matrix,

$T\left(i,j\right)=255*\left[\begin{array}{cc}5/8& 3/8\\ 1/8& 7/8\end{array}\right]$

This is a part of a general class of optimum dither patterns known as Bayer matrices . The values of the threshold matrix $T\left(i,j\right)$ are determined by the order that pixels turn "ON".The order can be put in the form of an index matrix . For a Bayer matrix of size 2, the index matrix $I\left(i,j\right)$ is given by

$I\left(i,j\right)=\left[\begin{array}{cc}3& 2\\ 1& 4\end{array}\right]$

and the relation between $T\left(i,j\right)$ and $I\left(i,j\right)$ is given by

$T\left(i,j\right)=255\left(I\left(i,j\right)-0.5\right)/{n}^{2}$

where ${n}^{2}$ is the total number of elements in the matrix.

[link] shows the halftone image produced by Bayer dithering of size 4.It is clear from the figure that the halftone image provides good detail rendition. Howeverthe inherent square grid patterns are visible in the halftone image.

## Error diffusion

Another method for halftoning is random dithering by error diffusion . In this case, the pixels are quantized in a specificorder (raster ordering Raster ordering of an image orients the pixels from left to right, and then top to bottom. This is similar to the order that a CRT scans theelectron beam across the screen. is commonly used), and the residual quantization error for the current pixel is propagated (diffused) forward tounquantized pixels. This keeps the overall intensity of the output binary imagecloser to the input gray scale intensity.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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