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H 2 ( g ) + I 2 ( g ) 2 H I ( g )
Q P H I 2 P H 2 P I 2

It is important to note that the partial pressures in Q need not be the equilibrium partial pressures. However, if the pressures in Q are the equilibrium partial pressures, then Q has the same value as K p , the equilibrium constant, by definition. Moreover, if the pressuresare at equilibrium, we know that Δ G 0 . If we look back at [link] , we can conclude that

Δ G ° R T K p

This is an exceptionally important relationship, because it relates two very different observations.To understand this significance, consider first the case where Δ G ° 0 . We have previously reasoned that, in this case, the reactionequilibrium will favor the products. From [link] we can note that, if Δ G ° 0 , it must be that K p 1 . Furthermore, if Δ G ° is a large negative number, K p is a very large number. By contrast, if Δ G ° is a large positive number, K p will be a very small (though positive) number much less than 1. In this case, the reactants will be strongly favored atequilibrium.

Note that the thermodynamic description of equilibrium and the dynamic description of equilibrium arecomplementary. Both predict the same equilibrium. In general, the thermodynamic arguments give us an understanding of the conditionsunder which equilibrium occurs, and the dynamic arguments help us understand how the equilibrium conditions are achieved.

Review and discussion questions

Each possible sequence of the 52 cards in a deck is equally probable. However, when you shuffle a deck and thenexamine the sequence, the deck is never ordered. Explain why in terms of microstates, macrostates, and entropy.

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Assess the validity of the statement, "In all spontaneous processes, the system moves toward a state of lowestenergy." Correct any errors you identify.

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In each case, determine whether spontaneity is expected at low temperature, high temperature, any temperature, orno temperature:

Δ H ° 0 , Δ S ° 0

Δ H ° 0 , Δ S ° 0

Δ H ° 0 , Δ S ° 0

Δ H ° 0 , Δ S ° 0

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Using thermodynamic equilibrium arguments, explain why a substance with weaker intermolecular forces has agreater vapor pressure than one with stronger intermolecular forces.

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Why does the entropy of a gas increase as the volume of the gas increases? Why does the entropy decrease as thepressure increases?

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For each of the following reactions, calculate the values of Δ S ° , Δ H ° , and Δ G ° at T 298 K and use these to predict whether equilibrium will favor products or reactants at T 298 K . Also calculate K p .

2 C O ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) 2 C O 2 ( g )

O 3 ( g ) + N O ( g ) N O 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g )

2 O 3 ( g ) 3 O 2 ( g )

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Predict the sign of the entropy for the reaction 2 H 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) 2 H 2 O ( g ) Give an explanation, based on entropy and the Second Law, of why this reaction occurs spontaneously.

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For the reaction H 2 ( g ) 2 H ( g ) , predict the sign of both Δ H ° and Δ S ° . Should this reaction be spontaneous at high temperature or at lowtemperature? Explain.

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For each of the reactions in [link] , predict whether increases in temperature will shift the reaction equilibrium more towardsproducts or more towards reactants.

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Using [link] and [link] , show that for a given set of initial partial pressures where Q is larger than K p , the reaction will spontaneously create more reactants. Also showthat if Q is smaller than K p , the reaction will spontaneously create more products.

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Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Dec 06, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10264/1.5
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