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Art connection

This plot shows the activation energy for an exergonic reaction. As the reaction proceeds, energy initially increases to overcome the activation energy. In a catalyzed reaction, the activation energy is much lower. The energy then decreases such that the Gibbs free energy of the products is less than that of the reactants. The activation energy is the peak of the energy plot minus the energy of the reactants. The Gibbs free energy is the energy of the products minus the energy of the reactants.
Activation energy is the energy required for a reaction to proceed, and it is lower if the reaction is catalyzed. The horizontal axis of this diagram describes the sequence of events in time.

If no activation energy were required to break down sucrose (table sugar), would you be able to store it in a sugar bowl?

Lowering the activation energy:

  1. makes the reaction happen faster
  2. lowers the energy level of the transition state
  3. is accomplished by adding a catalyst to the reaction
  4. always causes more product to be produced
  5. only reduces the transition state energy level in one direction, from reactants to products
  6. a, b and c
  7. b and c
  8. all of the above are true


Conservation of energy

Though energy can be converted from one form to another, energy cannot be created or destroyed. This principle is called the "law of conservation of energy." For example, in a motorcycle, the chemical potential energy of the fuel changes to kinetic energy. In a radio, electricity is converted into kinetic energy and wave energy (sound).

Machines can be used to convert energy from one form to another. Though ideal machines conserve the mechanical energy of a system, some of the energy always turns into heat when using a machine. For example, heat generated by friction is hard to collect and transform into another form of energy. In this situation, heat energy is usually considered unusable or lost.

Energy sources

The source of energy for many processes occurring on the earth's surface comes from the sun. Radiating solar energy heats the earth unevenly, creating air movements in the atmosphere. Therefore, the sun drives the winds, ocean currents and the water cycle. Sunlight energy is used by plants to create chemical energy through a process called photosynthesis, and this supports the life and growth of plants. In addition, dead plant material decays, and over millions of years is converted into fossil fuels (oil, coal, etc.).

Today, we make use of various sources of energy found on earth to produce electricity. Using machines, we convert the energies of wind, biomass, fossil fuels, water, heat trapped in the earth (geothermal), nuclear and solar energy into usable electricity. The above sources of energy differ in amount, availability, time required for their formation and usefulness. For example, the energy released by one gram of uranium during nuclear fission is much larger than that produced during the combustion of an equal mass of coal.

For this class, it is important for you to be able to identify the energy source for living cells. Whether we are discussing organisms such as trees or dogs, or individual cells, such as muscle or brain cells, or free living cells, such as bacteria or yeast, all cells need an energy source. Being able to identifying the cellular energy source will be one of the goals of this class. In addition most metabolic reactions require an energy source as well. Identifying and applying these concepts will be a major focus of this course.


Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
what does post-translational control refer to?
Teresa Reply
Bioremediation includes
Rachel Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Ucd bis2a intro to biology v1.2. OpenStax CNX. Sep 22, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11890/1.1
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