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Art connection

This plot shows the activation energy for an exergonic reaction. As the reaction proceeds, energy initially increases to overcome the activation energy. In a catalyzed reaction, the activation energy is much lower. The energy then decreases such that the Gibbs free energy of the products is less than that of the reactants. The activation energy is the peak of the energy plot minus the energy of the reactants. The Gibbs free energy is the energy of the products minus the energy of the reactants.
Activation energy is the energy required for a reaction to proceed, and it is lower if the reaction is catalyzed. The horizontal axis of this diagram describes the sequence of events in time.

If no activation energy were required to break down sucrose (table sugar), would you be able to store it in a sugar bowl?

Lowering the activation energy:

  1. makes the reaction happen faster
  2. lowers the energy level of the transition state
  3. is accomplished by adding a catalyst to the reaction
  4. always causes more product to be produced
  5. only reduces the transition state energy level in one direction, from reactants to products
  6. a, b and c
  7. b and c
  8. all of the above are true

g

Conservation of energy

Though energy can be converted from one form to another, energy cannot be created or destroyed. This principle is called the "law of conservation of energy." For example, in a motorcycle, the chemical potential energy of the fuel changes to kinetic energy. In a radio, electricity is converted into kinetic energy and wave energy (sound).

Machines can be used to convert energy from one form to another. Though ideal machines conserve the mechanical energy of a system, some of the energy always turns into heat when using a machine. For example, heat generated by friction is hard to collect and transform into another form of energy. In this situation, heat energy is usually considered unusable or lost.

Energy sources

The source of energy for many processes occurring on the earth's surface comes from the sun. Radiating solar energy heats the earth unevenly, creating air movements in the atmosphere. Therefore, the sun drives the winds, ocean currents and the water cycle. Sunlight energy is used by plants to create chemical energy through a process called photosynthesis, and this supports the life and growth of plants. In addition, dead plant material decays, and over millions of years is converted into fossil fuels (oil, coal, etc.).

Today, we make use of various sources of energy found on earth to produce electricity. Using machines, we convert the energies of wind, biomass, fossil fuels, water, heat trapped in the earth (geothermal), nuclear and solar energy into usable electricity. The above sources of energy differ in amount, availability, time required for their formation and usefulness. For example, the energy released by one gram of uranium during nuclear fission is much larger than that produced during the combustion of an equal mass of coal.

For this class, it is important for you to be able to identify the energy source for living cells. Whether we are discussing organisms such as trees or dogs, or individual cells, such as muscle or brain cells, or free living cells, such as bacteria or yeast, all cells need an energy source. Being able to identifying the cellular energy source will be one of the goals of this class. In addition most metabolic reactions require an energy source as well. Identifying and applying these concepts will be a major focus of this course.

US ENERGY PRODUCTION (Quadrillion BTU)

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
what does post-translational control refer to?
Teresa Reply
Bioremediation includes
Rachel Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Ucd bis2a intro to biology v1.2. OpenStax CNX. Sep 22, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11890/1.1
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