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Nitrogen Oxides + Hydrocarbons + Heat + Sunlight = Tropospheric Ozone

So to reduce the amount of ozone air pollution that forms in the troposphere, we must find ways to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons from sources like vehicles and industries.

Tropospheric ozone has very different effects than stratospheric ozone. Ozone in the stratosphere protects Earth from the Sun’s ultraviolet rays (see Lesson Four). Even though only about 10% of Earth’s ozone is in the troposphere, it is here that humans and animals can breathe it in as a harmful air pollutant. Tropospheric ozone can have the following health effects, even at concentrations of just 75 parts per billion (i.e. 75 ozone molecules per 1 billion air molecules):

  1. Make people more sensitive to allergens
  2. Aggravate asthma
  3. Damage and inflame the lungs, making it harder to breathe
  4. Irritate the respiratory system - coughing and irritation in the chest

Children and the elderly are especially sensitive to these health effects. Tropospheric ozone can also interfere with photosynthesis, stunting the growth of some types of plants.

Normal lung tissue (left) and lung tissue exposed to high levels of ozone

Credit: US EPA. More information about tropospheric ozone can be found in the US EPA booklet Good Up High, Bad Nearby (http://www.epa.gov/airnow/gooduphigh).

Normal lung tissue (left) and lung tissue exposed to high levels of ozone

Credit: US EPA. More information about tropospheric ozone can be found in the US EPA booklet Good Up High, Bad Nearby (http://www.epa.gov/airnow/gooduphigh).

The Houston region has long struggled to meet federal air quality standards for ground-level (tropospheric) ozone. Large amounts of emissions from vehicles and industries (including numerous petrochemical facilities) and hot weather contribute to Houston’s ozone pollution. Though cleaner cars and industries have greatly improved ozone levels in Houston, they continue to exceed federal limits. The U.S. EPA recently lowered the ozone limit from 85 parts per billion to 75 parts per billion, because scientists found that health impacts can occur even at these low levels. This lower limit will make it even more challenging for Houston to reduce emissions sufficiently to attain the ozone standard.

In addition to tropospheric ozone, there are many other types of air pollutants that can cause harm to living things or the environment. Some air pollutants are gases that are virtually invisible. Most occur in very small concentrations (typically less than 1 molecule per million air molecules), but they can still have major impacts on our health and the environment. In Lesson 6, we will see how some of these gases can warm the planet.

Other air pollutants are particles : microscopic liquids or solids like dust or soot suspended in the air. When the air looks “hazy” like in the picture below, it is mostly due to particles scattering and absorbing light. Scientists have learned that high levels of particles in the air can cause cardiovascular and respiratory disease.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Rice air curriculum. OpenStax CNX. May 09, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11200/1.1
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