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Foundation

We will assume an understanding of the postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory and of the energetics of chemical reactions. We will also assume an understanding of phaseequilibrium and reaction equilibrium, including the temperature dependence of equilibrium constants.

Goals

We have carefully examined the observation that chemical reactions come to equilibrium. Depending on thereaction, the equilibrium conditions can be such that there is a mixture of reactants and products, or virtually all products, orvirtually all reactants. We have not considered the time scale for the reaction to achieve these conditions, however. In many cases,the speed of the reaction might be of more interest than the final equilibrium conditions of the reaction. Some reactions proceed soslowly towards equilibrium as to appear not to occur at all. For example, metallic iron will eventually oxidize in the presence ofaqueous salt solutions, but the time is sufficiently long for this process that we can reasonably expect to build a boat out of iron.On the other hand, some reactions may be so rapid as to pose a hazard. For example, hydrogen gas will react with oxygen gas sorapidly as to cause an explosion. In addition, the time scale for a reaction can depend very strongly on the amounts of reactants andtheir temperature.

In this concept development study, we seek an understanding of the rates of chemical reactions. We will defineand measure reaction rates and develop a quantitative analysis of the dependence of the reaction rates on the conditions of thereaction, including concentration of reactants and temperature. This quantitative analysis will provide us insight into the processof a chemical reaction and thus lead us to develop a model to provide an understanding of the significance of reactantconcentration and temperature.

We will find that many reactions proceed quite simply, with reactant molecules colliding and exchanging atoms. Inother cases, we will find that the process of reaction can be quite complicated, involving many molecular collisions and rearrangementsleading from reactant molecules to product molecules. The rate of the chemical reaction is determined by these steps.

Observation 1: reaction rates

We begin by considering a fairly simple reaction on a rather elegant molecule. One oxidized form ofbuckminsterfullerene C 60 is C 60 O 3 , with a three oxygen bridge as shown in .

Oxidized buckminsterfullerene

C 60 O 3 is prepared from C 60 dissolved in toluene solution at temperatures of 0 ° C or below. When the solution is warmed, C 60 O 3 decomposes, releasing O 2 and creating C 60 O in a reaction which goes essentially to completion. We can actually watch this process happen in time by measuring the amount of lightof a specific frequency absorbed by the C 60 O 3 molecules, called the absorbance . The absorbance is proportional to the concentration of the C 60 O 3 in the toluene solution, so observing the absorbance as a function of time is essentially the same as observing the concentration as afunction of time. One such set of data is given in , and is shown in the graph in .

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Dec 06, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10264/1.5
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