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We will assume an understanding of the postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory and of the energetics of chemical reactions. We will also assume an understanding of phaseequilibrium and reaction equilibrium, including the temperature dependence of equilibrium constants.


We have carefully examined the observation that chemical reactions come to equilibrium. Depending on thereaction, the equilibrium conditions can be such that there is a mixture of reactants and products, or virtually all products, orvirtually all reactants. We have not considered the time scale for the reaction to achieve these conditions, however. In many cases,the speed of the reaction might be of more interest than the final equilibrium conditions of the reaction. Some reactions proceed soslowly towards equilibrium as to appear not to occur at all. For example, metallic iron will eventually oxidize in the presence ofaqueous salt solutions, but the time is sufficiently long for this process that we can reasonably expect to build a boat out of iron.On the other hand, some reactions may be so rapid as to pose a hazard. For example, hydrogen gas will react with oxygen gas sorapidly as to cause an explosion. In addition, the time scale for a reaction can depend very strongly on the amounts of reactants andtheir temperature.

In this concept development study, we seek an understanding of the rates of chemical reactions. We will defineand measure reaction rates and develop a quantitative analysis of the dependence of the reaction rates on the conditions of thereaction, including concentration of reactants and temperature. This quantitative analysis will provide us insight into the processof a chemical reaction and thus lead us to develop a model to provide an understanding of the significance of reactantconcentration and temperature.

We will find that many reactions proceed quite simply, with reactant molecules colliding and exchanging atoms. Inother cases, we will find that the process of reaction can be quite complicated, involving many molecular collisions and rearrangementsleading from reactant molecules to product molecules. The rate of the chemical reaction is determined by these steps.

Observation 1: reaction rates

We begin by considering a fairly simple reaction on a rather elegant molecule. One oxidized form ofbuckminsterfullerene C 60 is C 60 O 3 , with a three oxygen bridge as shown in .

Oxidized buckminsterfullerene

C 60 O 3 is prepared from C 60 dissolved in toluene solution at temperatures of 0 ° C or below. When the solution is warmed, C 60 O 3 decomposes, releasing O 2 and creating C 60 O in a reaction which goes essentially to completion. We can actually watch this process happen in time by measuring the amount of lightof a specific frequency absorbed by the C 60 O 3 molecules, called the absorbance . The absorbance is proportional to the concentration of the C 60 O 3 in the toluene solution, so observing the absorbance as a function of time is essentially the same as observing the concentration as afunction of time. One such set of data is given in , and is shown in the graph in .

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Dec 06, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10264/1.5
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