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With fracking and horizontal drilling, recovery from a deposit can be much higher than previously possible. Even more recent technological changes have increased both the efficiency and the reward from extraction of hydrocarbons from deep shale deposits. One example is octopus drilling.

Octopus drilling

Octopus drilling (see Figure 15-5) combines horizontal drilling and fracking with multiple wells on a single pad, or platform, to tap multiple deposits. This has made drilling faster and more efficient and has bolstered recovery rates even further. With octopus drilling, there can be as many as 18 wells emanating from one pad, enabling oil firms to secure even larger columns of oil or gas from shale deposits.

By 2014, the Eagle Ford formations in South Texas were producing nearly 2 million barrels per day, double that of the rich Bakken shale formations centered in North Dakota. Under the methods presented above, Texas will likely produce 4 million bbls per day by 2020, or double that of Nigeria in 2013.

In tight shale formations, decline curves have tended to be very steep. That is, initially the volume of oil (and/or gas) comes in strong, but then drops off. The decline rate in a single shale well can be as high as 60% in the first year, continuing on into the second and third years increasing rate each year.

To see the significance of this, consider a typical type of well drilled in the Texas Eagle Ford Shale (a formation, not a location) where the northern portion of the formation yields primarily crude oil, while the southern portion yields mainly natural gas. Marcellus shale formations in the U.S. North East produces mostly gas. Compare this with a “noble” oil well in Angola or the huge Saudi Sheba Field, located near Bahrain.

These “noble” wells in the mid-east have produced 15,000 to 20,000 bbls oil a day in the first year of production. After that output falls by about 20% in the first four years of operations (about 4.5% decline per year).

But in the Eagle Ford Shale in Texas a well might produce only a few hundred bbls per day in the first year, with a decline rate of about 7.5% per year thereafter. This is why over 12,000 wells have been drilled in just 3 Texas locations since 1999 with perhaps 100,000 new wells nationwide.

Decline rates differ significantly in different shale deposits. In the Bakken Shale in North Dakota, a typical well loses 44% of its production after a year. To counter the rapid decline rates, drillers have resorted to “octopus” drilling illustrated earlier

It is for this reason (rapid decline rates) that U.S. production of crude oil is expected to increase from 5.82 million bbls per day to a peak of about 7.54 million bbls per day in 2019. Then, as shale fields mature, crude production is expected to fall to 6.13 million bbls per day within a few years. Some oil industry leaders say that while very welcome, shale oil is a temporary bonanza for the U.S. So even if U.S. becomes the world’s largest oil producer and a leading natural gas producer by 2019, this will not mean U.S. energy independence forever (as some think).

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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