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More generally, reliance on nuclear power will be waning notably over the next 25 years even though China and Britain are continuing to build reactors. Almost 200 nuclear reactors are due to be shut down by 2040, according to the annual report of the International Energy Agency. The plans for reactor shutdowns over the next 25 years contrast sharply with that of the period 1974-2014, when only 10 reactors were decommissioned.

We lack the space to discuss in detail many of these very interesting alternative energy resources. It can be said, though, with a very high degree of assurance, that ethanol from corn or almost any food crop is not an answer to any intelligent question. Nor is biodiesel, except for that made by using algae. As we noted before: ethanol from corn (as in U.S.) involves very little if any energy gain and precious little environmental gain. Making ethanol itself requires lots of energy. Also a gallon of ethanol is less useful in internal combustion engines. This is because Ethanol is a 2-carbon molecule. Gasoline is a long-chained molecule with almost 50% higher energy content.

To replace half of diesel fuel use in U.S. with biodiesel would require many millions of acres of cultivation of corn in U.S. and Brazil. The truth is, the negative environmental consequences of ethanol from corn were never considered by Congress in the rush to subsidize ethanol. Example: pouring on fertilizer in Iowa to grow more corn for ethanol has resulted in more pollution of many rivers especially those draining into the Gulf of Mexico.

Perspectives on energy worldwide

- The nations that consume the most energy per capita are #1 Qatar, #2 Iceland and #3, the U.S.

- The nations that have the lowest per capita energy consumption are #1 Bangladesh and #2 Eritrea. All of the lowest 10 are very poor.

- The countries with the highest total energy consumption are #1 the U.S.and #2 China, and Chinese consumption is likely to surpass the U.S. by 2015.

- The country with the highest gasoline prices is Eritrea.

- The nations with lowest gasoline prices are #1 Venezuela and #2 Iran.

- The U.S. state with the most installed wind capacity is Texas with double the capacity of California, in second place.

Energy utilization and energy subsidies in emerging nations

Subsidies to fossil fuel use in many emerging countries are unusually high, leading to extraordinary rates of growth in energy consumption heavy stress on government budgets. And, according to one estimate, subsidies on energy use worldwide were responsible for 36% of global carbon emissions between 1980 and 2010. Pump Aligning , Economist , January 17, 2015, p.70. The subsidies often lead to unexpected outcomes. Over the past 30 years, Indonesia among many other emerging nations has used heavy subsidies on gasoline, diesel fuel and kerosene. The subsidies resulted in artificially low domestic prices for these products, so that consumption grew at very rapid rates. Indonesia in the 70s, 80s and 90s was a major oil exporter, and a charter member of OPEC, dating back to the mid-sixties. By 2012, Indonesia was, as a result of very low prices for domestic energy use, was a net oil importer , and no longer a member of OPEC.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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