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In particular, the NDRC and the Ministry of Land and Resources have been engaged in an ongoing dispute over whether shale can be classified as a mineral or as an energy resource. This above-ground impediment to shale production is an indictment of the federal ownership of minerals. It demonstrates how the ambiguity of Chinese regulatory authority prevents market forces from operating efficiently and therefore imposes ballooning cost uncertainties (Sandalow et al. 2014). Based on output from the 18th Third Plenum, China has indicated that it is in the process of converting more extensive property rights to rural farm owners; however, the country is thus far unwilling to relinquich full mineral rights to its civilians.

The emergence of large shale oil and gas deposits is altering worldwide energy markets in many ways:

  1. It undermines the position of Russia and Mideast as major suppliers of hydrocarbons.
  2. It weakens the worldwide market for biofuels made from sugar, corn, palm oil and wheat. In 2010 world biofuel production decreased for the first time in ten years.
  3. It undermines the case for nuclear power, already shaky after the Tsunami and melt-down at Fushysshima in March 2011, and the subsequent German government decision to forego all nuclear power by 2025. (China, however, was making massive investments in nuclear power in the years 2010-2015).

Another important change that began in the latter years of the 20 th century has been growing importance of national oil companies in emerging nations.

National oil companies in emerging nations in 2010 controlled nearly 90% of oil reserves in the world. All of the NOCs are state owned enterprises (SOEs), and some of them are among the biggest in the world: ARAMCO/CNOC/PETROBRAS/PEMEX. Being SOEs, they exhibit many of the problems of SOEs, especially X-inefficiency (failure to minimize costs) and corruption (see Chapter___).

Another significant change in the worldwide picture has been the very rapid growth of oil consumption in most emerging nations. Their market share in total global oil consumption has increased notably since 1996 from 33% in 1966 to 37% in 2009.

Finally, on the production side, the Chinese presence in overseas oil and gas sectors in emerging nations has been growing rapidly, especially in Africa. China by 2015 obtained more than 1/3 of its oil from Africa.

The energy resource coal is discussed only briefly in this Chapter. Coal production is still sizeable in a few emerging nations, including China, Colombia and India. And utilization of coal remains in 2015 an important fuel in electric power generation, especially in large emerging nations including China and India. However, the relative reliance on coal as a fuel is slowly but steadily declining in relative importance, especially owing to cheaper natural gas and gradual but promising increases in capacities for wind and solar power generation. But the principal reason for longer term declines in coal’s share in power generation is the significantly greater emission of CO 2 from use of this resource. It is a safe bet that both the absolute number of coal mines and the number of coal-fired power stations will diminish.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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