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In particular, the NDRC and the Ministry of Land and Resources have been engaged in an ongoing dispute over whether shale can be classified as a mineral or as an energy resource. This above-ground impediment to shale production is an indictment of the federal ownership of minerals. It demonstrates how the ambiguity of Chinese regulatory authority prevents market forces from operating efficiently and therefore imposes ballooning cost uncertainties (Sandalow et al. 2014). Based on output from the 18th Third Plenum, China has indicated that it is in the process of converting more extensive property rights to rural farm owners; however, the country is thus far unwilling to relinquich full mineral rights to its civilians.

The emergence of large shale oil and gas deposits is altering worldwide energy markets in many ways:

  1. It undermines the position of Russia and Mideast as major suppliers of hydrocarbons.
  2. It weakens the worldwide market for biofuels made from sugar, corn, palm oil and wheat. In 2010 world biofuel production decreased for the first time in ten years.
  3. It undermines the case for nuclear power, already shaky after the Tsunami and melt-down at Fushysshima in March 2011, and the subsequent German government decision to forego all nuclear power by 2025. (China, however, was making massive investments in nuclear power in the years 2010-2015).

Another important change that began in the latter years of the 20 th century has been growing importance of national oil companies in emerging nations.

National oil companies in emerging nations in 2010 controlled nearly 90% of oil reserves in the world. All of the NOCs are state owned enterprises (SOEs), and some of them are among the biggest in the world: ARAMCO/CNOC/PETROBRAS/PEMEX. Being SOEs, they exhibit many of the problems of SOEs, especially X-inefficiency (failure to minimize costs) and corruption (see Chapter___).

Another significant change in the worldwide picture has been the very rapid growth of oil consumption in most emerging nations. Their market share in total global oil consumption has increased notably since 1996 from 33% in 1966 to 37% in 2009.

Finally, on the production side, the Chinese presence in overseas oil and gas sectors in emerging nations has been growing rapidly, especially in Africa. China by 2015 obtained more than 1/3 of its oil from Africa.

The energy resource coal is discussed only briefly in this Chapter. Coal production is still sizeable in a few emerging nations, including China, Colombia and India. And utilization of coal remains in 2015 an important fuel in electric power generation, especially in large emerging nations including China and India. However, the relative reliance on coal as a fuel is slowly but steadily declining in relative importance, especially owing to cheaper natural gas and gradual but promising increases in capacities for wind and solar power generation. But the principal reason for longer term declines in coal’s share in power generation is the significantly greater emission of CO 2 from use of this resource. It is a safe bet that both the absolute number of coal mines and the number of coal-fired power stations will diminish.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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