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Educational leaders’ roles

The role of the school leaders has also been examined as part of the success of educational reforms. Further there have been summaries of the historical roles of the educational leaders when the ISSLC standards were established as preparation standards for educational leaders. Hessel and Holloway (2002) described the role of principal changing from a managerial role of building maintenance and student attendance monitors to more evaluative of teachers in the early 1900 -1920’s. School size increased during the 1930’s which led to the discussion of instructional leader versus managerial leader (Hessel&Holloway, p. 42). The 1950’s-1970’s saw an increase in the principal’s role to the improvement of teaching content to increase science achievement, integrated schools, and inclusion of children with handicaps into the schools. The 1980’s have been called the Era of Reform (Hessel&Holloway, 2002) which is where the principal was seen as having multiple roles in management of finance, human relations, and legal issues. This era was followed by the standards era in the 1990’s with a student centered reform.

Political legislative acts

Educational reforms were often made in response to legislative acts. The legislative acts related to education are briefly described with their impact on education and schools.

Keating-Owen Child Labor Act 1916. This act limited the working hours of children. It was to limit the production, manufacturing, and dealing of products with child labor under the age of fourteen. Children were not to work more than eight hours a day or more than six days in any week, or between the hours of 7:00 PM and 6:00 AM

Smith-Hughes Act of 1917. The National Vocational Education Act . This act promoted vocational education in agriculture and the trades, home economics, and industrial subjects. It included appropriations to the states for preparing teachers of vocational subjects. (http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agexed/sae/smithugh.html).

19 th Amendment. Women’s Right to Vote (1920). This amendment provided the right of citizens of the United States to vote should not be denied on account of sex. (http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agexed/sae/smithugh.html).

Aid to Dependent Children Social Security Act of 1935 . This act provided provisions for states to give financial assistance as unemployment compensation (Title III), adequate provision for aged persons (Title II), blind persons (Title X), dependent and cripple children (Title IV), maternal and child welfare (Title V), vocational rehabilitation of the physically disabled, public health services (Title VI), old age and survivor insurance with a one percent tax for both employers and employees to be increased to 3% by 1948. ( (External Link) ).

GI Bill of Rights 1944 . This act was established as a benefit to the veterans of World War II so they could go to college to learn careers that would help them adjust back to society. ( (External Link) ).

National Interstate and Defense Highway Act of 1956 . This act appropriated funds for the construction of highways and for additional revenues from taxes on motor fuel, tires, trucks and buses. The GI Bill of 1944 and the Interstate Highway Act of 1956 impacted schools by enabling families to move more easily (Books, 2004, p. 25).

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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