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Educational leaders’ roles

The role of the school leaders has also been examined as part of the success of educational reforms. Further there have been summaries of the historical roles of the educational leaders when the ISSLC standards were established as preparation standards for educational leaders. Hessel and Holloway (2002) described the role of principal changing from a managerial role of building maintenance and student attendance monitors to more evaluative of teachers in the early 1900 -1920’s. School size increased during the 1930’s which led to the discussion of instructional leader versus managerial leader (Hessel&Holloway, p. 42). The 1950’s-1970’s saw an increase in the principal’s role to the improvement of teaching content to increase science achievement, integrated schools, and inclusion of children with handicaps into the schools. The 1980’s have been called the Era of Reform (Hessel&Holloway, 2002) which is where the principal was seen as having multiple roles in management of finance, human relations, and legal issues. This era was followed by the standards era in the 1990’s with a student centered reform.

Political legislative acts

Educational reforms were often made in response to legislative acts. The legislative acts related to education are briefly described with their impact on education and schools.

Keating-Owen Child Labor Act 1916. This act limited the working hours of children. It was to limit the production, manufacturing, and dealing of products with child labor under the age of fourteen. Children were not to work more than eight hours a day or more than six days in any week, or between the hours of 7:00 PM and 6:00 AM

Smith-Hughes Act of 1917. The National Vocational Education Act . This act promoted vocational education in agriculture and the trades, home economics, and industrial subjects. It included appropriations to the states for preparing teachers of vocational subjects. (http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agexed/sae/smithugh.html).

19 th Amendment. Women’s Right to Vote (1920). This amendment provided the right of citizens of the United States to vote should not be denied on account of sex. (http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agexed/sae/smithugh.html).

Aid to Dependent Children Social Security Act of 1935 . This act provided provisions for states to give financial assistance as unemployment compensation (Title III), adequate provision for aged persons (Title II), blind persons (Title X), dependent and cripple children (Title IV), maternal and child welfare (Title V), vocational rehabilitation of the physically disabled, public health services (Title VI), old age and survivor insurance with a one percent tax for both employers and employees to be increased to 3% by 1948. ( (External Link) ).

GI Bill of Rights 1944 . This act was established as a benefit to the veterans of World War II so they could go to college to learn careers that would help them adjust back to society. ( (External Link) ).

National Interstate and Defense Highway Act of 1956 . This act appropriated funds for the construction of highways and for additional revenues from taxes on motor fuel, tires, trucks and buses. The GI Bill of 1944 and the Interstate Highway Act of 1956 impacted schools by enabling families to move more easily (Books, 2004, p. 25).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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