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The different eras in educational reform are not meant to be seen as isolated reforms that were only evidenced in that time period, but are meant to show the major trend of the educational reform. The reforms should be viewed with an understanding that many reforms often came in place in a gradual manner (Tyack&Cuban, 1995 p. 47). However, the following reforms are shown for each decade in order for the reader to identify educational trends. The preparation of boys for industrial work, correspondence courses, and proper health conditions were the major reforms that impacted education during the 1900-1910 era. During the 1910-1919 era, there was also an emphasis on leisure and working conditions for children. Further the National Education Association supported better salaries for teachers. The 1920’s showed an emphasis for creativity and self-expression as important for children. The 1930’s saw a shift in power bases for education with a shift from only the elite controlling school boards and standards for school buses. The 1940s and the 1950s showed an emphasis on ability grouping as well as a clearer definition of academic subjects. Tyack and Cuban (1995) stated that it was during the 1950s that this increased definition of academic subjects was meant to increase the emphasis on the rigor of courses and especially science, math, and foreign language. During the 1960s the emphasis was on compensatory education and integration of students (Katz, 1975). According to Tyack and Cuban (1995) it was the 1960s where educational leaders found many people gaining educational reform through legislation and the judicial system (p. 53). During the 1960s and 1970s the main emphasis was on science, environment, and ecology, and there was a return to phonics instruction. This focus on a basic education included a focus on competition with individual hard work (Tyack&Cuban, 1995, p. 53). The Department of Education was established by President Carter. The education for all children including those with handicaps was passed in the 1970s. During the 1980s, there was a return to basic subjects, competency assessments, graduation requirements, and college entrance requirements. It was during the 1980s that A Nation at Risk (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983) led the examining of competencies, assessments, graduation requirements, and college entrance requirements. The school reforms emphasized standardized testing and increased academic standards through centralized control (Goodman,1995). Near the end of the 1980’sthere was an emphasis on School-Based Management and decentralized control as part of school restructuring reforms (Wohlstetter&Odden,1992). During the 1990s, content standards and national goals for education became prevalent. During the 2000s, the national involvement in education increased with the requirement of students meeting annual yearly progress. This further increase of national involvement was noted with the chartering of the New American Schools Development Corporation in 1991 and the America’s 2000 Educational strategy supported by President George Bush (Tyack&Cuban, 1995). The role of the federal government in education increased with the requirement of each state to develop standards and assessment to increase academic requirements as measured in grades four, eight, and twelve.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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