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George Bush gave his inaugural address on January 20, 1989 opening with a prayer. He gave a brief mention of education as “intellectual satisfaction, and needed by children as stated, “They (children) need our care, our guidance, and our education”. He also thanked the children who were watching in schools and implored them to remember that they were part of the nation ( (External Link) ).

William Clinton gave his inaugural address on January 21, 1993 with little mention of education but a recognition of poverty for many children. He also asked, “young Americans to a season of service—to act on your idealism by helping troubled children, keeping company with those in need, reconnecting our torn communities”. ( (External Link) ).

George W. Bush gave his inaugural address on January 20, 2001 with a few statements of children and education. He stated, “The ambitions of some Americans are limited by failing schools and hidden prejudice and the circumstances of their birth”. Further, he stated the “every child must be taught these principles” about the principles that unite for justice and opportunity. He then stated, “If we do not turn the hearts of children toward knowledge and character, we lose their gifts and undermine their idealism”. He followed with, “Together, we will reclaim America’s schools, before ignorance and apathy claim more young lives.” He further stated, “Government has great responsibilities for public safety and public health, for civil rights, and common schools”. He also stated, “And we find that children and community are the commitments that set us free” ( (External Link) ).

Barack Obama gave his inaugural address on January 20, 2009 with a few statements on education and children. He stated, “our schools fail too many”. Later, he stated, “And we will transform our schools and colleges and universities to meet the demands of a new age”. He further acknowledged “a parent’s willingness to nurture a child that finally decides our fate”.

The majority of the inaugural addresses did not mention education or prioritize education. Many presidents talked about the role of the government, taxes and the economy, relationships with other nations, the strength and growth of the United States, and the role of citizens, amendments, and democracy. It would appear from examining the presidential inaugural addresses in isolation that education was not at the forefront of the nation’s needs. Yet, there is the caution that the inaugural address is only one speech and should not be examined without looking at educational reforms of the different eras as well as legislative acts that impacted the educational reforms.

Education reform

This section is a short description of some reforms that impacted the public schools. Many school reforms have been studied including an examination of implementation. Most of the implementation studies on reforms have either been efficacy studies or effectiveness studies (O’Donnell, 2008). Rogers (2003) expressed that there is “no universal data collection tools that can be applied across a wide variety of fidelity for implementation studies. Further, Rogers (2003) pointed out that the flexible nature of innovations help a wider range of adopters and conditions thus leading to a greater degree of sustaining the reform. And yet, it is this flexibility that leads to the difficulty in comparing reforms. Fullan (2004) implied that the future of educational reform is determined by policy makers as well as consumers when there is a common purpose and the strong involvement of the leaders and teachers. This strong involvement of local educational leaders and teachers should be a collective action if the entire system is to learn and move forward (Fullan, 2004, p. 7). Goodman (1995) divided educational reforms into “waves” (p. 1) where the first wave of reform was based on the agricultural and rural society. The second wave was the industrial reform with decentralization of decision-making. The third wave of reform was based on information and technology changes.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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