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Significance of the study

There are strong opinions on the reforms in public education and yet there is a need for revisiting the legislation and leaders in the different eras to determine if there was a strong connection between policy development and public school reform. Positive and sustained school reform continues today with a need for an understanding of the experiences of educational leaders who guide the implementation and institutionalization of the reform (Phillips&Starratt, 2011).

Review of literature

The connection of historical reforms for public schools in the United States is important to the understanding of school improvement initiatives in order that educated decisions can be made for current reforms (Tyack&Cuban, 1995). Researchers have stated that reforms has been created from the inside of schools (Murphy&Beck, 1995), from outsiders (Katz, 1975), or some combination of outside people and school personnel. This is a simplistic way to divide reforms when in reality there are many factors that impact the success and sustainability of reforms.

According to some researchers, successful reform has examined school operations, professional development, administrative support, school organization, and rigor of teaching (Bain, 2010, p. 109). According to other researchers, educational reforms have not been sustained at high levels past five years (Berends, Bodilly,&Nataraj , 2002; Borman, Hewes, Overman,&Brown, 2003; Datnow, 2005; Zhang, Shkolnik,&Fashola, 2005).

While other researchers have found that education reform is possible and can be sustained past five years when several factors are present. These factors are focused leadership, connection with the parents and community, provision of professional development to increase high quality teachers’ instructional capacity, acceptance of instructional practices, and high level of instructional implementation (Bain, 2010; Scheurich, Goddard, Skrla, McKenzie,&Young, 2010; Sindelar, Shearer, Yendol-Hoppey,&Liebert, 2006). Other factors that have been shown to impact the sustainability of a reform were shared decision-making, teacher success, and scope of the innovation.

Sindelar, Shearer, Yendol-Hoppey,&Liebert, (2006) found that complex innovations were less successful (p. 319) which conflicts with Huberman and Miles’ (1984) research that determined that teachers were more committed to an innovation when it was complex. Their cross case analysis of twelve schools of varying sizes and locations across the U.S. showed that the initial attitudes toward a new innovation was neutral (p. 46-47). Administrative pressure was the largest reason for adoption (p. 48) and high levels of personal investment in the early stages of adoption were present for complex changes (p. 53). The longer time between the adoption decision and implementation led to more success (p. 57). Further, the leader’s role in the reform was the initiator of the reform, determining the fit of the innovation to the organization with the demands and stress level to the people in the organization with the innovation, determining the cost and benefit of the innovation (p. 68). Huberman and Miles (1984) found that “the key predictor s of continuation were teacher and administrator support, low environmental turbulence, clear indications that the project was getting locally routinized” (p. 132). The impact on students was determined by the “committed, stable, and skillful use of a good quality innovation” (p. 230).

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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