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Significance of the study

There are strong opinions on the reforms in public education and yet there is a need for revisiting the legislation and leaders in the different eras to determine if there was a strong connection between policy development and public school reform. Positive and sustained school reform continues today with a need for an understanding of the experiences of educational leaders who guide the implementation and institutionalization of the reform (Phillips&Starratt, 2011).

Review of literature

The connection of historical reforms for public schools in the United States is important to the understanding of school improvement initiatives in order that educated decisions can be made for current reforms (Tyack&Cuban, 1995). Researchers have stated that reforms has been created from the inside of schools (Murphy&Beck, 1995), from outsiders (Katz, 1975), or some combination of outside people and school personnel. This is a simplistic way to divide reforms when in reality there are many factors that impact the success and sustainability of reforms.

According to some researchers, successful reform has examined school operations, professional development, administrative support, school organization, and rigor of teaching (Bain, 2010, p. 109). According to other researchers, educational reforms have not been sustained at high levels past five years (Berends, Bodilly,&Nataraj , 2002; Borman, Hewes, Overman,&Brown, 2003; Datnow, 2005; Zhang, Shkolnik,&Fashola, 2005).

While other researchers have found that education reform is possible and can be sustained past five years when several factors are present. These factors are focused leadership, connection with the parents and community, provision of professional development to increase high quality teachers’ instructional capacity, acceptance of instructional practices, and high level of instructional implementation (Bain, 2010; Scheurich, Goddard, Skrla, McKenzie,&Young, 2010; Sindelar, Shearer, Yendol-Hoppey,&Liebert, 2006). Other factors that have been shown to impact the sustainability of a reform were shared decision-making, teacher success, and scope of the innovation.

Sindelar, Shearer, Yendol-Hoppey,&Liebert, (2006) found that complex innovations were less successful (p. 319) which conflicts with Huberman and Miles’ (1984) research that determined that teachers were more committed to an innovation when it was complex. Their cross case analysis of twelve schools of varying sizes and locations across the U.S. showed that the initial attitudes toward a new innovation was neutral (p. 46-47). Administrative pressure was the largest reason for adoption (p. 48) and high levels of personal investment in the early stages of adoption were present for complex changes (p. 53). The longer time between the adoption decision and implementation led to more success (p. 57). Further, the leader’s role in the reform was the initiator of the reform, determining the fit of the innovation to the organization with the demands and stress level to the people in the organization with the innovation, determining the cost and benefit of the innovation (p. 68). Huberman and Miles (1984) found that “the key predictor s of continuation were teacher and administrator support, low environmental turbulence, clear indications that the project was getting locally routinized” (p. 132). The impact on students was determined by the “committed, stable, and skillful use of a good quality innovation” (p. 230).

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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