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Print off your graphs and use the data to determine the initial and final temperatures. Record all the temperatures to the nearest 0.1 ° C size 12{°C} {} . If a slight downward trend appears on the final temperature plateau, use the maximum value achieved. Calculate the average enthalpy of the reaction and standard deviation for the three trials. Then combine your data with the data obtained from the rest of the group and calculate average enthalpy of the reaction and standard deviation for all trials together. Compare your average and standard deviation with that of the larger set and comment on the results obtained using a larger data set.

Part ii. enthalpy of reaction


The same basic procedure you used in the dry ice sublimation lab will be used here today. 

  • Tare your calorimeter and pour approximately 75 mL of cold water in it. Add stir bar. Record the mass to 3 decimal places. Place the cups on the magnetic stirrer and turn on the stirring motor to a medium rate. Make sure you can fit the thermistor though the styrofoam cover to a length such that its tip goes deep into the water but misses the stir bar but do not insert it. Cover the calorimeter.
  • Start recording data on the MicroLab interface. Let it run for about 10 seconds before putting thermistor through the Styrofoam cover. You should see successive, constant temperature readings of near room temperature. Approximately 5 grams of anhydrous has been weighed for you, record the weight of this plus the weight of the weighing bottle. Then weigh the dry empty weighing bottle. Quickly add to the water and reposition the thermistor and cover assembly.


Note: Since anhydrous absorbs moisture rapidly from the air, close the lids of the bottles securely immediately after using. Dry the spatula each time before weighing the powder and clean the balance of any solid.

  • Continue monitoring the temperature change until thermal equilibrium is reached (the temperature stops changing or starts decreasing).
  • Stop collecting and SAVE YOUR DATA and/or print it.
  • Repeat steps 1-4 two more times. Don’t forget to save your data each time you do a run because it is lost as soon as the next run begins.
  • Repeat the process but replace anhydrous with .
  • Use the data to determine the initial and final temperatures. Record all temperatures to the nearest 0.1 . If a slight downward trend appears on the final temperature plateau, use the maximum value achieved. Calculate the average enthalpy of dissolution and standard deviation. Use Hess’s Law to calculate the heat of hydration of and % error. Then combine your data with the data obtained from the rest of the class and calculate the average enthalpy of dissolution and hydration.


Calculations are similar to those done for the acid-base neutralization reaction. The calculation of is the same as the calculation of , that is:



qwater can be calculated using water’s specific heat, mass of water and temperature change of water solution:



In order to account for the mass of anhydrous or hexahydrate, divide by the mass of anhydrous or to get in J/g. Then convert to J/mol.

Part iii. chemistry of life

Hot packs and cold packs are a real life example of thermochemistry. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate and ammonium chloride can be used to make“hot/cold”packs similar to those used for sports injuries and in hospitals. Your TA will make a pack from each of the two compounds and pass them around and answer some fundamental thermochemical questions about the reactions involved.

Ta procedure

  • Fill two Ziploc bags half way full with water.
  • Put two spoons full of anhydrous magnesium sulfate into one bag and two spoons full of ammonium chloride into the other bag, zip them closed, and shake.

Pass the packs around to students and observe the temperature change.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Gen chem lab. OpenStax CNX. Oct 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10452/1.51
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