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In addition to universities, industry and government, capital to move a promising idea to a stage where industry canafford the applied research and development required for commercialization is vital. To this end, the National Science Foundation created programs in theearly 1990s for small businesses, providing funds for aspiring entrepreneurs to conduct “proof of concept” research that might lead large companies either tofund further research or to acquire the entrepreneurial firm.

Along the same lines, venture capital firms were identified as an important component of national innovation systems. Suchfirms support new companies during their early stages of development and provide vital financial and management experience. Almost unique to the United States,venture capital firms’ existence may be closely linked to the almost unique concept of risk in this country. An individual who fails in one business mayraise the necessary funds to start another—business failure is not seen as moral failure in the United States.

Mowery and Rosenberg also identified the U.S. research university system as an essential element in the national innovationsystem. David C. Mowery and Nathan Rosenberg, “The U.S. National Innovation System,” from Richard R. Nelson and NathanRosenberg, eds., National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 29- 52. The American research university system is, by several measures, by far the best in the world. They also pointed to data demonstrating that smalland medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States develop more potentially innovative ideas than larger firms. They suggested that SMEs wouldcontinue to play a significant role in the U.S. national innovation system. In their article in the Nelson-Rosenberg collection, Hiroyuki Odagiri and Akira Goto ( op. cit. ) ignore university-industry research cooperation as important to Japan’s national innovation system, citing the importance of universities onlyas a source of skilled manpower. Yet beginning in 1996, the Japanese government embarked on a series of five-year Science and Technology Basic Plans which,among other things, took measures to encourage university-industry research cooperation. In 2004, universities became autonomous organizations, largelyunregulated by the government’s Ministry of Education— Monbukogausho , or MEXT—and permitted to compete on the basis of their own competitive niches.

Council on competitiveness

The Council on Competitiveness (CoC) was created in 1986 during a time when the United States appeared to be laggingbehind other nations—particularly Japan—in its ability to compete in a number of key industries. It consists of major company CEOs, labor leaders, universitypresidents, and the heads of the principal science and technology agencies of the federal government.

Even as the national innovation concept broadened the way research and development was conceived, so meetings of theCouncil on Competitiveness were considerably broader than conventional professional science society meetings, such as those of the American Associationfor the Advancement of Science and the American Physical Society. That is, CoC meetings involved other actors in the innovation process in addition toscientists and engineers.

Although established during the first Bush administration, the CoC did not become a recognized organization until well intothe Clinton administration, during which it held three notable conferences. The first was held on February 24, 1997, at the University of California, San Diego,and was billed as “California and the Future of American Innovation.” Jon Cohen, “U.S. Science Policy: All Start Group Prescribes Partnerships for R&D Woes,” Science (March 7, 1997), 1410-11. California Governor Pete Wilson participated, as did John Gibbons, the first ofClinton’s two science advisors, NSF Director Neal Lane (later Clinton’s second science advisor), Congressman George Brown (D-CA), Steven Schiff (R-NM), and theheads of several universities and corporations. Ibid. The two subsequent conferences took place in Atlanta on March 3 and in Indianapolis on April 1-2.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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