# 0.12 Probability

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This chapter covers principles of probability. After completing this chapter students should be able to: write sample spaces; determine whether two events are mutually exclusive; use the addition rule; calculate probabilities using tree diagrams and combinations; solve problems involving conditional probability; determine whether two events are independent.

## Chapter overview

In this chapter, you will learn to:

1. Write sample spaces.
2. Determine whether two events are mutually exclusive.
4. Calculate probabilities using both tree diagrams and combinations.
5. Do problems involving conditional probability.
6. Determine whether two events are independent.

## Sample spaces and probability

If two coins are tossed, what is the probability that both coins will fall heads? The problem seems simple enough, but it is not uncommon to hear the incorrect answer $1/3$ . A student may incorrectly reason that if two coins are tossed there are three possibilities, one head, two heads, or no heads. Therefore, the probability of two heads is one out of three. The answer is wrong because if we toss two coins there are four possibilities and not three. For clarity, assume that one coin is a penny and the other a nickel. Then we have the following four possibilities.

HH HT TH TT

The possibility HT, for example, indicates a head on the penny and a tail on the nickel, while TH represents a tail on the penny and a head on the nickel.

It is for this reason, we emphasize the need for understanding sample spaces.

An act of flipping coins, rolling dice, drawing cards, or surveying people are referred to as an experiment .

Sample Spaces
A sample space of an experiment is the set of all possible outcomes.

If a die is rolled, write a sample space.

A die has six faces each having an equally likely chance of appearing. Therefore, the set of all possible outcomes $S$ is

$\left\{1,2,3,4,5,6\right\}$ .

A family has three children. Write a sample space.

The sample space consists of eight possibilities.

$\left\{\text{BBB},\text{BBG},\text{BGB},\text{BGG},\text{GBB},\text{GBG},\text{GGB},\text{GGG}\right\}$

The possibility $\text{BGB}$ , for example, indicates that the first born is a boy, the second born a girl, and the third a boy.

We illustrate these possibilities with a tree diagram.

Two dice are rolled. Write the sample space.

We assume one of the dice is red, and the other green. We have the following 36 possibilities.

 Green Red 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 (1,1) (1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (1,6) 2 (2,1) (2,2) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (2,6) 3 (3,1) (3,2) (3,3) (3,4) (3,5) (3,6) 4 (4,1) (4,2) (4,3) (4,4) (4,5) (4,6) 5 (5,1) (5,2) (5,3) (5,4) (5,5) (5,6) 6 (6,1) (6,2) (6,3) (6,4) (6,5) (6,6)

The entry (2, 5), for example, indicates that the red die shows a two, and the green a 5.

Now that we understand the concept of a sample space, we will define probability.

## Probability

For a sample space $S$ , and an outcome $A$ of $S$ , the following two properties are satisfied.
1. If $A$ is an outcome of a sample space, then the probability of $A$ , denoted by $P\left(A\right)$ , is between 0 and 1, inclusive.
$0\le P\left(A\right)\le 1$
2. The sum of the probabilities of all the outcomes in $S$ equals 1.

If two dice, one red and one green, are rolled, find the probability that the red die shows a 3 and the green shows a six.

Since two dice are rolled, there are 36 possibilities. The probability of each outcome, listed in [link] , is equally likely.

Since (3, 6) is one such outcome, the probability of obtaining (3, 6) is $1/\text{36}$ .

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
If March sales will be up from February by 10%, 15%, and 20% at Place I, Place II, and Place III, respectively, find the expected number of hot dogs, and corn dogs to be sold
8. It is known that 80% of the people wear seat belts, and 5% of the people quit smoking last year. If 4% of the people who wear seat belts quit smoking, are the events, wearing a seat belt and quitting smoking, independent?
Mr. Shamir employs two part-time typists, Inna and Jim for his typing needs. Inna charges $10 an hour and can type 6 pages an hour, while Jim charges$12 an hour and can type 8 pages per hour. Each typist must be employed at least 8 hours per week to keep them on the payroll. If Mr. Shamir has at least 208 pages to be typed, how many hours per week should he employ each student to minimize his typing costs, and what will be the total cost?
At De Anza College, 20% of the students take Finite Mathematics, 30% take Statistics and 10% take both. What percentage of the students take Finite Mathematics or Statistics?

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