# 0.12 Phase equilibrium and intermolecular interactions  (Page 2/7)

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Consider, then, trying to measure the volume for lower and lower temperatures to follow the graph . To be specific, we take exactly 1.00 mol of butane ${C}_{4}{H}_{10}$ at 1 atm pressure. As we lower the temperature from 400K to 300K, we observe the expected proportional decrease in the volume from32.8L to 24.6L and this proportionality works very well for temperatures just slightly above 272.6K, where the volume is 22.4L.However, when we reach 272.6K, the volume of the butane drops very abruptly, falling to about 0.097L at temperatures just slightlybelow 272.6K. This is less than one-half of one percent of the previous volume! The striking change in volume is shown in the graph as a vertical line at 272.6K.

This dramatic change in physical properties at one temperature is referred to as a phase transition . When cooling butane through the temperature 272.6K, the butane is abruptly converted at thattemperature from one phase, gas, to another phase, liquid, with very different physical properties. If we reverse the process,starting with liquid butane at 1 atm pressure and temperature below 272.6K and then heating, we find that the butane remains entirelyliquid for temperatures below 272.6K and then becomes entirely gas for temperatures above 272.6K. We refer to the temperature of thephase transition as the boiling point temperature. (We will discuss the phases present at the boiling point, rather than above and below that temperature, in another section .)

We now consider how the phase transition depends on a variety of factors. First, we consider capturing 2.00mol of butane in the cylinder initially, still at 1 atm pressure. The volume of 2.00 mol is twice that of 1.00 mol, by Avogadro's hypothesis . The proportional decrease in the volume of 2.00 mol of gas is shown in along with the previous result for 1.00 mol. Note that the phase transition is observed tooccur at exactly the same temperature, 272.6K, even though there is double the mass of butane.

Consider instead then varying the applied pressure. The result for cooling 1.00 molof butane at a constant 2.00 atm pressure is also shown in . We observe the now familiar phase transition with a similar dramatic drop in volume. However, in thiscase, we find that the phase transition occurs at 293.2K, over 20K higher than at the lower pressure. Therefore, the temperature ofthe phase transition depends on the pressure applied. We can measure the boiling point temperature of butane as a function ofthe applied pressure, and this result is plotted here .

Finally, we consider varying the substance which we trap in the cylinder. In each case, we discover that theboiling point temperature depends on both what the substance is and on the applied pressure, but does not depend on the amount of thesubstance we trap. In , we have also plotted the boiling point as a function of the pressurefor several substances. It is very clear that the boiling points for different substances can be very different from one another,although the variation of the boiling point with pressure looks similar from one substance to the next.

#### Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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