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Indonesia presents a large array of examples of environmental problems traceable to poverty, ignorance, institutions and policies. Many of the examples of environmental degradation observable in Indonesia are consequences of several causes interacting together . Poverty, for example, plays some role in almost every instance. Let us however, group each problem under what appears to be the principal cause.


Examples in this category include river pollution, the degradation of coral reefs in Bali, the extinction of the Java tiger, and especially tropical deforestation. Without doubt, shifting cultivation and “shifted cultivators” driven by poverty, is one of the leading causes of deforestation in a country initially blessed with abundant natural forests, second only to those of Brazil.

Consider river pollution. Some years ago, there was a case wherein a British company was discharging noxious , but non-toxic wastes into a river in a poverty-stricken region in West Java. There was strong local political pressure to either close the plant or to drastically curtail its discharges. Closing the plant would have cost over 150 jobs, in a country where growth in the age group 15-30 was far outstripping the number of jobs available. The Government made a decision not to close the plant. Why? To protect 150 jobs? No, because the river was already so polluted from other sources, such as human waste, runoff of heavy fertilizer use that closing the plant would have had no effect at all upon making the water usable for drinking or agriculture. Because of local poverty, the river was so polluted from human waste not those coming from artisan workshops. Sacrificing 150 jobs for zero ecological benefit would have been bad economics, bad ecology, and bad ethics as well. The solution to this environmental problem lay first in efforts to reduce poverty, not environmental policy per se .

Consider however, another river pollution case in West Java not settled by analysis. In 1984 a Japanese plant was discharging noxious waste into a river. Villagers protested: Government ignored. Villagers waited another year. Nothing. The villagers burned down the plant.

Coral reefs surround and protect a large part of Sanur beach on eastern Bali, Indonesia. The Island of Bali is very densely populated. Poor families have long harvested coral between the reef and the beach. The coral was used as a binding agent in making a particular form of durable cement. As a result of coral harvests, the reef was being slowly destroyed. As a result, erosion was threatening not only the beaches, coastal ecology, but thousands of jobs in tourism. What to do? Some foreign experts recommended construction of jetties to protect the threatened beaches from erosion. This does not work in Bali any more than it works on the east coast of the United States. Others advocated banning the harvest of coral. But this would have resulted in loss of livelihood affecting perhaps 4,000 people all poor. If coral gathering were banned, how would these people survive? Is a job in the tourist industry worth more than two or three jobs in coral gathering? This involves both and economic and ethical questions. And what if the degradation of the reef is now so advanced that it is too late to save it by prohibiting coral harvests? So this is also a difficult ecological question. There was no good solution to this poverty-induced problem.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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