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Indonesia presents a large array of examples of environmental problems traceable to poverty, ignorance, institutions and policies. Many of the examples of environmental degradation observable in Indonesia are consequences of several causes interacting together . Poverty, for example, plays some role in almost every instance. Let us however, group each problem under what appears to be the principal cause.

Poverty

Examples in this category include river pollution, the degradation of coral reefs in Bali, the extinction of the Java tiger, and especially tropical deforestation. Without doubt, shifting cultivation and “shifted cultivators” driven by poverty, is one of the leading causes of deforestation in a country initially blessed with abundant natural forests, second only to those of Brazil.

Consider river pollution. Some years ago, there was a case wherein a British company was discharging noxious , but non-toxic wastes into a river in a poverty-stricken region in West Java. There was strong local political pressure to either close the plant or to drastically curtail its discharges. Closing the plant would have cost over 150 jobs, in a country where growth in the age group 15-30 was far outstripping the number of jobs available. The Government made a decision not to close the plant. Why? To protect 150 jobs? No, because the river was already so polluted from other sources, such as human waste, runoff of heavy fertilizer use that closing the plant would have had no effect at all upon making the water usable for drinking or agriculture. Because of local poverty, the river was so polluted from human waste not those coming from artisan workshops. Sacrificing 150 jobs for zero ecological benefit would have been bad economics, bad ecology, and bad ethics as well. The solution to this environmental problem lay first in efforts to reduce poverty, not environmental policy per se .

Consider however, another river pollution case in West Java not settled by analysis. In 1984 a Japanese plant was discharging noxious waste into a river. Villagers protested: Government ignored. Villagers waited another year. Nothing. The villagers burned down the plant.

Coral reefs surround and protect a large part of Sanur beach on eastern Bali, Indonesia. The Island of Bali is very densely populated. Poor families have long harvested coral between the reef and the beach. The coral was used as a binding agent in making a particular form of durable cement. As a result of coral harvests, the reef was being slowly destroyed. As a result, erosion was threatening not only the beaches, coastal ecology, but thousands of jobs in tourism. What to do? Some foreign experts recommended construction of jetties to protect the threatened beaches from erosion. This does not work in Bali any more than it works on the east coast of the United States. Others advocated banning the harvest of coral. But this would have resulted in loss of livelihood affecting perhaps 4,000 people all poor. If coral gathering were banned, how would these people survive? Is a job in the tourist industry worth more than two or three jobs in coral gathering? This involves both and economic and ethical questions. And what if the degradation of the reef is now so advanced that it is too late to save it by prohibiting coral harvests? So this is also a difficult ecological question. There was no good solution to this poverty-induced problem.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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