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Science and foreign relations in the reagan years

During the early 1980s, competition with Japan intensified. American companies accused Japanese manufacturers and the Japanese government of unfair trade practices in microelectronics, tools, and automobiles, among other areas, and trade negotiations between the two countries grew increasingly acrimonious. When the U.S.-Japan umbrella agreement on scientific cooperation came due for renewal in 1986, officials in the Office of the Trade Negotiator, the Commerce Department, and OSTP insisted that more stringent conditions be added, on the grounds that cooperative research in science and engineering could provide Japan with proprietary information that would undercut American competitiveness. They also pressed for greater access for American scientists to Japanese research facilities. One OSTP official also insisted that Japanese engineers cease and desist from publishing in their own language on the grounds that that constituted a trade barrier. (Engineers, unlike academic scientists, frequently publish in national rather than international journals when their work deals with specific local problems.)

The renegotiated umbrella agreement, completed in 1988, created a Joint Committee on Access, a post-doctoral fellowship program for American scientists in Japan, and a summer institute program in Japan, to begin in 1990, for American graduate students. The program came to be so highly regarded that by 2009 there would be six more participating countries: Korea, Taiwan, China, Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore.

Decline of ostp

Senior Carter administration OSTP officials had hoped to institutionalize the office as a non-political entity that would maintain continuity from administration to administration, as did OMB. Their model was the Office of Science and Technology through the Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon years. But the incoming Reagan administration had little interest in a presidential science advisory system, and by the time Keyworth assumed the OSTP directorship in July 1981, it was staffed almost entirely by junior level officers, several serving as little more than caretakers. Within two years, even the junior Carter-era appointees had departed, reinforcing the impression that politics and ideological purity had become important criteria for staff selection. Staff allotments, begun under Carter, were further cut under Reagan, and the office failed to deliver requested reports to key congressional committees, who responded by further cutting the OSTP budget. D. Allan Bromley, The President’s Scientists (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994), xx. . This led to more failure to produce reports and additional staff reductions. As a result, OSTP came to rely heavily on temporary detailees from other federal agencies. By 1987, the General Accounting Office (GAO) was reporting, “OSTP does not, in practice, have the authority or responsibility in the budget process that was intended in Public Law 94-282 [the OSTP Act of 1976].” Congressional Research Service, op. cit. As a consequence, “we have not seen any evidence under the current administration that the Director of OSTP has enough influence with agency heads to reconcile conflicting views on cross-agency issues... This would require [also] strong presidential support.” Thus, “OSTP studies and reports on issues and opportunities in specific topical areas but generally does not address the crosscutting issues among the fields of science and engineering.”

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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