# 0.11 Phy1080: motion -- variable velocity and acceleration  (Page 7/19)

 Page 7 / 19

Estimating variable velocity graphically

Assuming that you are able to create a plot of displacement versus time at closely-spaced points, you can estimate the variable velocity curve byconnecting each pair of points with a straight line and measuring the slope of each such straight line segment. An estimate of the velocity during the intervaldefined by a pair of points is the slope of the line that connects those points. The closer the points are, the better will be the estimate of thevelocity at a point half way between those two points.

In the situation where you are able to collect enough data to draw a smooth curve of displacement versus time, the instantaneous velocity at any point onthat curve is the slope of a line that is tangent to the curve at that point. Note, however, that the construction of such a tangent line is no small feat.

Units of velocity

If you recall your high school geometry course, you may remember that the slope of a line is given by the "rise over run." In other words, the slope ofthe line is the ratio of the height to the base of a right triangle for which the hypotenuse is on or parallel to the line.

Estimate some variable velocity values

At this point, I encourage you to use a straight edge, place it firmly against two pins that define a time interval on your graph board,estimate the slope of the edge, and record that slope as your estimate of the velocity at the center of that time interval.

Explanation of the code

The code in Listing 1 begins by declaring and initializing values to contain the parameters of the problem:

• The acceleration of gravity in feet/sec^2. Note that this value is negative indicating that the gravitational attraction is toward the centerof the earth (down).
• The initial velocity of the arrow in feet/sec. This value is positive because the direction of velocity is away from the center of the earth (up).
• The height of the arrow when it is released, positive values meaning up from the ground.
• The time interval at which successive estimates of the height of the arrow will be computed.

Working variables

Following that, the code in Listing 1 declares and initializes two working variables for time and distance that will change as the program progresses.

Then Listing 1 declares and initializes a variable named sp that is used solely to insert spaces between the columns in the output display.

A while loop

A while loop is used to evaluate the equation given earlier , to compute and display the height of the arrow every 0.25 seconds for as long as the arrow is above theground (height is positive). The loop continues to iterate and display time and height values in two separate columns (see Figure 4 ) until the computation produces one negative height value.

When the test at the top of the while loop determines that the previously-computed value for height was negative,

• The body of the loop is skipped.
• The "End Script" message is displayed.
• The script terminates.

As you can see, this is not a complicated script in comparison with some of the scripts that were presented in earlier modules.

what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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