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However, we do get a clearer understanding of why adding the reaction energies together gives the total energy of the overall reaction. Hess’ Law is a consequence of the Law of Conservation of Energy.

Using hess’ law to measure reaction energy

It may be hard to remember now, but we started out with observations leading to Hess’ Law because we wanted to find a way to measure the energy of a reaction which can’t easily be found using calorimetry. Some reactions require special conditions which are hard to create in a laboratory where we can make measurements. We gave as an example fermentation of glucose to lactic acid:

2 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 → 2 CH 3 CHOHCOOH

As we noted above, we can’t simply put glucose in a beaker and wait for it to turn into lactic acid and measure a temperature change of a water bath. The reaction just doesn’t happen without the assistance of enzymes in a cell.

So let’s use Hess’ Law, since we know that the energy of [link] will be the same as the sum of the energies of any set of reactions which adds up to [link] . We just need to pick some reactions which are easy to carry out in the laboratory so that we can measure the energies of these reactions.

The easiest reactions to conduct, particularly with molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, are almost always combustion reactions. We can pretty easily burn these compounds, reacting them with oxygen to form CO 2 (g) and H 2 O(g). We can also pretty easily measure the energies of these combustion reactions using calorimetry, just like before.

Here is what the experiments give us:

C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) + 6O 2 (g) → 6CO 2 (g) + 6H 2 O(g)
2 CH 3 CHOHCOOH + 6O 2 (g) → 6CO 2 (g) + 6H 2 O(g)

We can now follow a two step process which is equivalent to converting one glucose molecule into two lactic acid molecules. First, we burn the glucose, and the energy evolved is -2808 kJ. Second, hypothetically, we convert the CO 2 (g) and H 2 O(g) into lactic acid and oxygen. Although we can’t really do that hypothetical reaction, we don’t need to. The energy of that second step is just the negative of the energy we measure for the combustion of two moles of lactic acid, which is -2668 kJ. Using Hess’ Law, the overall energy for converting glucose to lactic acid then is just the measured energy of [link] plus the negative of the measured energy of [link] . This is equal to -140 kJ. We now have a means to measure the energy of a reaction which we can actually carry out!

This is a fairly general approach, applicable to most materials. By measuring the energies of combustion reactions and then summing those combustion reactions, we can calculate the energy of an overall reaction.

Review and discussion questions

  1. How can the temperature of water be elevated by doing work on it? Devise a way to measure the amount work required to raise the temperature of a sample of water by 1°C.
  2. Assume you have two samples of two different metals, X and Z. The samples are exactly the same mass.

    (a) Both samples are heated to the same temperature. Then each sample is placed into separate glasses containing identical quantities of cold water, initially at identical temperatures below that of the metals. The final temperature of the water containing metal X is greater than the final temperature of the water containing metal Z. Which of the two metals has the larger heat capacity? Explain your conclusion.

    (b) If each sample, initially at the same temperature, is heated with exactly 100 J of energy, which sample has the higher final temperature?

  3. Using data from [link] , provide two reasons with explanation why a hot object is much more efficiently cooled by placing it in water than leaving it in the open air, even when the air and the water are at the same temperature initially.
  4. Explain how Hess' Law is a consequence of conservation of energy.
  5. The enthalpy of formation of sucrose C 6 H 12 O 6 cannot be measured by the direct reaction of carbon, hydrogen and oxyben. Devise a method to measure ∆H f for sucrose. What would you measure and how do these measured quantities relate to the ∆H f for sucrose?

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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