# 0.11 Measuring energy changes in chemical reactions  (Page 6/8)

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${\text{C(s) + O}}_{\text{2}}{\text{(g) → CO}}_{\text{2}}\text{(g)}$

produces 393.5 kJ for one mole of carbon burned; hence q = -393.5 kJ. The reaction

${\text{2 H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{(g) + O}}_{\text{2}}{\text{(g) → 2 H}}_{\text{2}}\text{O(g)}$

produces 483.6 kJ for two moles of hydrogen gas burned, so q = -483.6 kJ. Therefore, more energy is available from the combustion of hydrogen fuel than from the combustion of carbon fuel. Because of this, we should not be surprised that conversion of the carbon fuel to hydrogen fuel requires the input of energy.

We can stare at the numbers for the heats of these reactions, 90.1 kJ, -393.5 kJ, -483.6 kJ, and notice a surprising fact. The first number 90.1 kJ, is exactly equal to the difference between the second number -393.5 kJ and the third number -483.6 kJ. In other words, the heat input in [link] is exactly equal to the difference between the heat evolved in the combustion of carbon ( [link] ) and the heat evolved in the combustion of hydrogen ( [link] ). This might seem like an odd coincidence, but the numbers from the data are too precisely equal for this to be a coincidence. Just as we do anytime we see a fascinating pattern in quantitative data, we should develop a model to understand this.

It is interesting that the energy of [link] is the difference between the energies in [link] and [link] , and not the sum. One way to view this is to remember that the energy of a reaction running in reverse must be the negative of the energy of the same reaction running forward. In other words, if we convert reactants to products with some change in energy, and then convert the products back to the reactants, the change in energy of the reverse process must be the negative of the change in energy in the forward process. If this were not true, we could carry out the reaction many times and generate energy, which would violate the Law of Conservation of Energy.

Let’s list all three reactions together, but in doing so, let’s reverse [link] :

${\text{C(s) + 2 H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O(g) → CO}}_{\text{2}}{\text{(g) + 2 H}}_{\text{2}}\text{(g)}\phantom{\rule{50pt}{0ex}}\text{q = 90.1kJ}$
${\text{C(s) + O}}_{\text{2}}{\text{(g) → CO}}_{\text{2}}\text{(g)}\phantom{\rule{50pt}{0ex}}\text{q = -393.5kJ}$
${\text{2 H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O(g) → 2 H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{(g) + O}}_{\text{2}}\text{(g)}\phantom{\rule{50pt}{0ex}}\text{q = 483.6kJ}$

What if we do both [link] and [link] at the same time?

${\text{C(s) + O}}_{\text{2}}{\text{(g) + 2 H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{O(g) → CO}}_{\text{2}}{\text{(g) + 2 H}}_{\text{2}}{\text{(g) + O}}_{\text{2}}\text{(g)}$

Since O2 (g) is on both sides of this reaction, it is net neither a reactant nor product, so we could remove it without losing anything. [link] is then equivalent to [link] , except that we carried it out by doing two separate reactions. What if we do [link] in two steps, first doing [link] and then doing [link] ? That would be the same outcome as [link] so it must not matter whether we do [link] and [link] at the same time or one after the other. The reactants and products are the same either way.

What would be the energy of doing [link] and [link] either at the same time or in sequence? It must be the energy of [link] plus the energy of [link] , of course. So if we add these together using the above numbers, the energy of doing both reactions together is -393.5kJ + 483.6kJ = 90.1kJ. This is the energy of [link] and it is experimentally exactly the same as the energy of [link] .

This is a new observation. We have found that the energy of a single reaction ( [link] ) is equal to the sum of the energies of two reactions ( [link] and [link] ), which together give the same total reaction as the single reaction. When the separate reactions add up to an overall reaction, the energies of the separate reactions add up to the energy of the overall reaction.

how can chip be made from sand
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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