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Specific heat capacities of specific substances at 25 ˚c (unless otherwise noted)
Substance Cp (J/g·°C)
Air (sea level) 1.0035
Ar (g) 0.5203
Au (s) 0.129
CH 4 (g) 2.191
C 2 H 5 OH (l) 2.44
CO 2 (g) 0.839
Cu (s) 0.385
Fe (s) 0.450
H 2 (g) 14.30
H 2 O (0 ˚C) 2.03
H 2 O (25 ˚C) 4.184
H 2 O (100 ˚C) 2.080
He (g) 5.19
Ne (g) 1.030
NaCl (s) 0.864
O 2 (g) 0.918
Pb (s) 0.127

Calorimetry: Measuring the Heat of a Chemical Reaction

Let’s illustrate by analyzing the example of burning butane instead of methane. If we burn 1.0 g of butane and allow the heat evolved to warm 1.0 kg of water, we observe that an increase in the temperature of the water of 11.8 °C. Therefore, by [link] , elevating the temperature of 1000 g of water by 11.8 °C must require 49,520 J = 49.52 kJ of heat. Therefore, burning 1.0 g of butane gas produces exactly 49.52 kJ of heat.

The method of measuring reaction energies by capturing the heat evolved in a water bath and measuring the temperature rise produced in that water bath is called calorimetry . Following this procedure, we can straightforwardly measure the heat released or absorbed in any easily performed chemical reaction.

By convention, when heat is absorbed during a reaction, we consider the quantity of heat to be a positive number: in chemical terms, q>0 for an endothermic reaction. When heat is evolved, the reaction is exothermic and q<0 by convention.

Observation 3: hess' law of reaction energies

The method of calorimetry we have developed works well provided that the reaction is easily carried out in a way that we can capture the energy transfer in a known quantity of water. But many reactions of great interest are very difficult to carry out under such controlled circumstances. Many biologically important chemical reactions may require the conditions and enzymes only available inside a cell. For example, conversion of glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 to lactic acid CH 3 CHOHCOOH is one of the primary means of providing energy to cells:

C 6 H 12 O 6 → 2 CH 3 CHOHCOOH

Measuring the energy of this reaction is important to understanding the biological process of energy transfer in cells. However, we can’t simply put glucose in a beaker and wait for it to turn into lactic acid. Very specific conditions and enzymes are required. We need to develop a different method for measuring the energy of this reaction, and this requires more experimentation.

To begin our observations, we will work with a few reactions for which we can measure the energy change. Hydrogen gas, which is of potential interest nationally as a clean fuel, can be generated by the reaction of carbon (coal) and water:

C(s) + 2 H 2 O(g) → CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 (g)

Calorimetry reveals that this reaction requires the input of 90.1 kJ of heat for every mole of C(s) consumed.

It is interesting to ask where this input energy goes when the reaction occurs. One way to answer this question is to consider the fact that Reaction (3) converts one fuel, C(s), into another, H 2 (g). To compare the energy available in each fuel, we can measure the heat evolved in the combustion of each fuel with one mole of oxygen gas. We observe that

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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